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City-based Optimization Model for Energy Technologies:COMET- New York City Documentation
Kaplan, O. AND M. Isik. City-based Optimization Model for Energy Technologies:COMET- New York City Documentation. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-19/124, 2020.
Meeting increased demand for energy with increased resource scarcity exacerbated by climate change presents a significant challenge to many cities around the world. There is a strong connection between how cities deliver and use energy either in the form of fuels or electricity to meet demands in the buildings and transportation sectors and what air quality and GHG outcomes these activities will yield. Beyond GHG emissions, many cities and urban areas are faced with air quality challenges. New York City, for instance, have efforts to understand and influence both energy sector dynamics and end-use sectors. The policy makers recognize the importance of behavior response as a key to designing cost-effective energy evaluation and emission mitigation goals across the city. There are only number of tools and frameworks that can facilitate few studies where dynamics among the EGU sector, buildings sector and transportation sector. EPA/ORD developed City-based Optimization Model for Energy Technologies (COMET) which is designed to examine energy consumption and management scenarios under various environmental policy scenarios implemented at city- and state-level.
EPA/ORD developed City-based Optimization Model for Energy Technologies (COMET) which is designed to examine energy consumption and management scenarios under various environmental policy scenarios implemented at city- and state-level. Initial application of the COMET is piloted in NNew York City. This report provides an overview of the COMET, data sources, calibration against actual energy consumption data and discusses a reference case proving future year energy outlook.COMET uses the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy-environmental-economic optimization framework to determine the technology investment choice and related fuel consumptions for end-use energy demand sectors such as buildings and transportation. In addition, the model covers supply curves for primary energy carriers including fuel oil, natural gas, coal, hydrogen, and other renewable resources. Energy technologies (e.g., power plants, refineries, combined heat and power (CHP)) are deployed based on their initial capital cost, variable and fixed operation and maintenance costs, and parameters such as efficiency, availability, capacity factors. COMET determines the technology investment level and related fuel consumption that results in least total system-wide discounted cost while keeping the constraints (sector-wide or system-wide emission limits, renewable or electrification standards etc.) under pre-set levels for the period between 2010-2055. The electric generating units in New York State (both base and peaking units) are included in the model. Using scenario analyses, the model can also be used to explore how the least cost pathway changes in response to various input changes, such as the introduction of new energy efficient technologies or a new policy to stimulate emission reductions. The COMET will enable users to analyze portfolio of technologies that meets building and transportation sector energy demands by facilitating case studies in other cities.