You are here:
REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID
Tully, D B., J. C. Luft, J C. Rockett, H Ren, J E. Schmid, C R. Wood, AND D J. Dix. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY 19(3):353-366, (2005).
A byproduct of drinking water disinfection, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats. To determine if BCA produces similar reproductive toxicity in mice, juvenile and adult C57BL/6 males were exposed to 0, 8, 24, 72 or 216 mg/kg of BCA once daily for 14 days. Five of 12 animals from each dose-group were sacrificed at the end of dosing, and testes, epididymes, and seminal vesicles harvested and weighed. Seven mice from each dose group (including juvenile-exposed mice, following a 14 week maturation period) were used in a 40-day sequential breeding assay to determine if BCA targets a particular phase of spermatogenesis. No significant effects were observed in mice exposed to BCA as juveniles, and there were no effects on fertility by 14 weeks after dosing. However, effects were observed in adult-exposed mice over the first 10 days after BCA exposure: mean number of litters/male, percentage of litters/female bred, and total number of fetuses/male were all reduced by 72 and 216 mg/kg BCA. These results in adult mice indicate BCA disrupted differentiation of spermatids during dosing and the first 10 days of mating, and are consistent with the spermatid retention and atypical residual bodies observed in animals exposed to 72 and 216 mg/kg BCA. To investigate mechanisms involved, we utilized cDNA microarrays containing 950 testis-expressed genes to profile gene expression from Control and BCA-treated mice. Statistical analyses of microarray results identified 40 well characterized genes differentially expressed in a dose responsive manner as a result of BCA exposure. Microarray results were supplemented with quantitative real-time PCR and Westerns for several genes and proteins. The 40 genes whose expression was altered by BCA are involved in numerous biological processes including: cell communication and adhesion, cell cycle and cell proliferation, metabolism, signal transduction, stress response, and spermatogenesis and male fertility.Modulated expression of these genes, particularly the 14 expressed in Sertoli cells and spermatids, offers new insights into potential mechanisms of BCA toxicity in the mouse testis.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LAB
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY DIVISION
GAMETE AND EARLY EMBRYO BIOLOGY BRANCH