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THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
Serne, J. AND K. Wilson. THE USE AND FATE OF LUBRICANTS, OILS, GREASES, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/2-78/101 (NTIS PB284973), 1978.
The report gives results of an investigation of the use and fate of lubricants, oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids in the iron and steel industry. Data from nine integrated steel plants and two consultants with extensive steel industry experience were used to: develop correlations between lubricant usage rates and steel production capacity, and the types of products made; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic fluid material balances for specific, as well as typical, integrated steel plants. Generalizations were made regarding the fate (as air, water, and solid waste pollution) of these oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids. Air pollution emissions, total oil-and-grease water pollution discharges, and the quantity of oil and grease being disposed of in landfills were estimated by steelmaking area and for a typical integrated steel plant. Introductory and background information pertaining to the steel industry, lubrication practices, steel plant lubricants, and waste oil collection and reclamation methods are also presented. Study results indicate that, for a typical integrated steel plant with a raw steel production capacity of 4 million ton/yr, 1.2 million lb/mo of oils, greases, and hydraulic fluids are used throughout the plant. Of all lubricants used, an estimated 10% enters the environment as air pollution, 9% as water pollution, and 44% as solid waste.