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SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW
Srivastava*, R K., W. Jozewicz, AND C. Singer. SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 20(4):219-227, (2001).
Electricity generating units may use sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain S02 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of mercury emissions. It is timely, therefore, to review the commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of performance. Data on worldwide FGD applications reflect that wet FGD technologies have been used at most of the installations. Among the worldwide FGD technology installations completed through 1998, the majority (522 out of 668) are composed of wet FGD systems.
The S02 removal performance of scrubbers has been reviewed. Data reflect that most wet limestone and lime spray drying installations appear to be capable of about 90 percent SO2 removal. Advanced, state-of-the-art wet scrubbers can provide SO2 removal in excess of 95 percent. A review of recently reported advances in SO2 scrubbing technologies is presented. Some of these advances have been aimed at improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of established processes. Others, like wet ammonia FGD, have focused on developing new processes. Costs associated with limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) technology are analyzed.
It was of particular interest to examine the cost of LSFO applications since this technology represents the bulk of the Acid Rain SO2 Program Phase I retrofits. A recent cost estimation model, Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost), is capable of predicting the published LSFO costs within +/- 15 percent. Predictions of this model reflect that capital costs of medium difficulty retrofit LSFO systems range from about 300 $/kW it 200 MWe to about 125 $/kW at 1000 MWe, and reflect an economy of scale. Corresponding annualized costs range between approximately 9 to 10 and 4 to 5.5 mlls/kWhr.