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Developing Sediment Remediation Goals at Superfund Sites Based on Pore Water for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity to Non-ionic Organic Contaminants
Burkhard, L. P., D. R. Mount, AND R. M. Burgess. Developing Sediment Remediation Goals at Superfund Sites Based on Pore Water for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity to Non-ionic Organic Contaminants. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-15/289, 2017.
This document provides US EPA Superfund program offices (OSWER/OSRTI) with guidance on how to use measurements of contaminant concentrations in sediment interstitial waters to set remediation goals at sites with contaminated sediment for the protection of benthic invertebrates living in and on the sediments. Over the past decade, the passive sampling technique for measuring concentrations in sediment interstitial waters has been developed. Passive sampling measurements provide a much better description (in comparison to bulk sediment measurement) of the chemical exposure to the benthic organisms from the sediments. The document provides information and background on selecting adverse effects concentrations for chemicals and passive sampling measurements. These data are subsequently used in deriving remediation goals and the methodology is illustrated using samples containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) chemical mixtures.
A methodology for developing remediation goals for sites with contaminated sediments is provided. The remediation goals are based upon the concentrations of chemicals in the sediment interstitial water measured using the passive sampling technique. The passive sampling technique measures the freely dissolved concentrations of chemical in the sediment interstitial water and this freely dissolved concentration is equivalent to the bioavailable portion of the chemical in the sediment. Adverse effects concentrations for chemicals are the final chronic value (FCV) taken from EPA’s ambient water quality criteria for aquatic life and these values are then used in deriving the interstitial water remediation goals for the sediment site of interest.
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