Related Topics: Health Research

Health Research Products in the Science Inventory

Records 1 to 25 of 2905

Uterine Artery Flow and Offspring Growth in Long-Evans Rats following Maternal Exposure to Ozone during Implantation (JOURNAL)
Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that increased ozone exposure during gestation may compromise fetal growth. The implantation stage of pregnancy, in particular, is considered a key window of susceptibility for this outcome. Objectives: The main goal of this study was t...
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergency department visits associated with wildfire smoke exposure in California 2015 (JOURNAL)
BACKGROUND: Wildfire smoke is known to exacerbate respiratory conditions; however, evidence for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been inconsistent, despite biological plausibility. METHODS AND RESULTS: A population-based epidemiologic analysis was conducted for dail...
TRPA1 mediates the cardiac effects of acrolein through parasympathetic dominance but also sympathetic modulation in mice (JOURNAL)
This study describes the effects of inhaled acrolein on the cardiac function of normal and TRPA1 knockout mice. The data suggest that cardiac autonomic imbalance and arrhythmia due to exposure are mediated by TRPA1, an irritant sensor, and subsequent autonomic changes that render...
Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure Impairs Vasorelaxant Response in Superoxide Dismutase 2-Deficient Murine Aortic Rings (JOURNAL)
Background, studies have linked exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (PM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism of adverse vascular effects. Advanced age is one factor known to decrease anti-oxidant defense and conf...
Fine Particulate Matters: The Impact of Air Quality Standards on Cardiovascular Mortality (JOURNAL)
Background. In 1997 the Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Although the weight of scientific evidence has determined that a causal relationship exists between PM2.5 exposures and...
Ecosystem goods and services case studies and models support community decision making using the EnviroAtlas and the Eco-Health Relationship Browser. (PUBLISHED REPORT)
This report presents multiple lines of inquiry focused on improving the public’s use of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) concepts, data, and tools for addressing environmental, social, and economic problems. The case studies and data tools and models in the report highlig...
Microbial Source Tracking: From Basic Science to Management Tool (PRESENTATION)
Presentation to be given at the Annual UNC Water Microbiology Meeting.
20180906 - Translating Innovations in Toxicology into Chemical Safety Decision Making (Total Exposure Health) (PRESENTATION)
The field of toxicology has struggled with rapidly and efficiently integrating technological and computational advances into decision making due to the potential public health and regulatory implications of the underlying science. Over the past ten years, these technologies and a...
Let's Get Moving and Write Software – an Open Source Project for EPANET (JOURNAL)
Water infrastructure simulation models, such as EPANET and SWMM, have played a significant role in simulating water distribution, stormwater and sanitary sewer systems. These software packages have played an important, and varying, role to different portions of the water infrast...
Adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation (JOURNAL)
Recent studies showed that the circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone-induced pulmonary effects through the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Hence, w...
Identification of Vulnerable Communities with High Lead Exposures Residing in Michigan (PRESENTATION)
Lead exposure is associated with a variety of harmful effects in both children and adults, including adverse neurological, cardiovascular, kidney, developmental, and reproductive outcomes. Scientific evidence indicates that exposure to even small amounts of lead can be harmful to...
Mutagenicity and Lung Toxicity of Smoldering vs. Flaming Emissions from Various Biomass Fuels: Implications for Health Effects from Wildland Fires (JOURNAL)
BACKGROUND: The increasing size and frequency of wildland fires are leading to greater potential for cardiopulmonary disease and cancer in exposed populations, however little is known on how the types of fuel and combustion phases affect these adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We e...
Incorporating toxicokinetic data and tools to support public health decision making (PRESENTATION)
In order to reduce reliance on resource-intensive animal toxicity testing that supports human and ecological health risk assessment, public health agencies are relying more on alternative test methods and strategies to assess risks of injury to health that arise from exposures to...
Resolving air quality data gaps – are sensors the solution? (PRESENTATION)
Over the past five years, a dramatic shift has taken place in how air pollution is measured, understood, and communicated. Until recently, air pollution was measured in fairly few places and conducted by highly trained specialists, with data reported to government databases. In t...
DNA Methylation Age-Environmental Influences, Health Impacts, and Its Role in Environmental Epidemiology (JOURNAL)
Purpose of review: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA methylation-based aging biomarkers are valuable tools for evaluating the aging process from a molecular perspective. These epigenetic aging biomarkers can be evaluated across the lifespan and are tissue specific. This review examines the ...
Exposure to human-associated chemical markers of fecal contamination and self-reported illness among swimmers at recreational beaches (JOURNAL)
Abstract Anthropogenic chemicals have been proposed as potential markers of human fecal contamination in recreational water. However, to date, there are no published studies describing their relationships with illness risks. Using a cohort of swimmers at seven U.S. beaches, we e...
Human biomarker interpretation: the importance of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and their calculations based on mixed models, ANOVA, and variance estimates (JOURNAL)
Human biomonitoring is the foundation of environmental toxicology, community public health evaluation, pre-­‐clinical health effects assessments, pharmacological drug development and testing, and medical diagnostics. Within this framework, the intra-­‐class co...
Standardization of the collection of exhaled breath condensate and exhaled breath aerosol using a feedback regulated sampling device (JOURNAL)
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and associated exhaled breath aerosols (EBA) are valuable non-invasive biological media used for the quantification of biomarkers. EBC contains exhaled water vapor, soluble gas-phase (polar) organic compounds, ionic species, plus other species inc...
A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease (JOURNAL)
Introduction: High levels of arsenic in drinking water (≥100 µg/L) have consistently been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence supports a link with arsenic at low-moderate levels (<100 µg/L). Our objective was to examine the dose-response relationship be...
Assisting Community Sustainability in Small and Rural Populations through the DISC Tool (PRESENTATION)
The EPA is developing an application named DISC (Decisions Integration for Strong Communities) to assist communities in meeting their coordinated economic, social, and environmental goals. We are conducting research to help determine the usefulness of this tool for smaller commun...
Mitigating the Adverse Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke (PRESENTATION)
The American Lung Association is sponsoring a webinar titled &ldquo;Protecting Lung Health During the Wildfire Season&rdquo; which will focus on Western US states who are presently be impacted by nearly 100 wildfires. Within the broader webinar Dr. Wayne Cascio will make a presen...
Transition and post-transition metals in exhaled breath condensate (JOURNAL)
Abstract Water vapor in expired air, as well as dispersed non-volatile components, condense onto a cooler surface after exiting the respiratory tract. This exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a dilute sampling of the epithelial lining fluid. Accordingly, the collection of ...
IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Preliminary Assessment Materials) (IRIS ASSESSMENT)
In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for RDX to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...
Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management Options During a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak (PUBLISHED REPORT)
Report—Exposure estimates were performed to rank the various livestock carcass management options relative to one another for a hypothetical site and mortality scenario from a potential biological incident. Assessment included an ordinal scale ranking (ranking of individual condi...
Exposure to human-associated fecal indicators and self-reported illness among swimmers at recreational beaches: A cohort study (JOURNAL)
BACKGROUND: Fecal indicator bacteria used to assess illness risks in recreational waters (e.g., Escherichia coli, Enterococci) cannot discriminate among pollution sources. To address this limitation, human-associated Bacteroides markers have been proposed, but the risk of illness...