EPA Science Inventory

Products in the Science Inventory

Records 1 to 25 of 244

Screening a mouse liver gene expression Compendium Identifies Effectors of the Aryl Hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (JOURNAL)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxic effects of 2,3, 7 ,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin {TCDD), dioxin-like compounds (DLC) as well as some drugs and endogenous tryptophan metabolites. Short-term act...
When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations (JOURNAL)
For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...
2,3,7,8-Dibenzo-P-Dioxins in Mined Clay Products from the U.S.: Evidence for Possible Natural Origin (JOURNAL)
Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been rai...
Computational Model of Secondary Palate Fusion and Disruption (JOURNAL)
Morphogenetic events are driven by cell-generated physical forces and complex cellular dynamics. To improve our capacity to predict developmental effects from cellular alterations, we built a multi-cellular agent-based model in CompuCell3D that recapitulates the cellular networks...
Toxicogenomic assessment of 6-OH-BDE47 induced developmental toxicity in chicken embryo (JOURNAL)
Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-/MeO-PBDEs) are analogs of PBDEs with hundreds of possible structures and many of them can activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), however, the in vivo evidence on the toxicity of OH-/MeO-PBDEs are still very limi...
Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements (Journal Article) (JOURNAL)
In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...
Exposure and Human Health Evaluation of Airborne Pollution from the World Trade Center Disaster (JOURNAL)
In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, many Federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), were called upon to bring their technical and scientific expertise to the national e...
Genetic basis for rapidly evolved tolerance in the wild: adaptation to toxic pollutants by an estuarine fish species (JOURNAL)
Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unu...
The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish (JOURNAL)
Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl h...
Integrating Monitoring and Genetic Methods To Infer Historical Risks of PCBs and DDE to Common and Roseate Terns Nesting Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site (Massachusetts, USA) (JOURNAL)
Common and roseate terns are migratory piscivorous seabirds with major breeding colonies within feeding range of thepolychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH, MA, USA) Superfund site. Our longitudinal study shows that before PCB discharges into NBH cease...
Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns (JOURNAL)
Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),...
Susceptibility based upon Chemical Interaction with Disease Processes: Potential Implications for Risk Assessment (JOURNAL)
One of the challenges facing toxicology and risk assessment is that numerous host and environmental factors may modulate vulnerability and risk. An area of increasing interest is the potential for chemicals to interact with background aging and disease processes, an interaction...
Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review (JOURNAL)
Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health.Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic litera...
Targeted Approach to Identify Genetic Loci Associated with Evolved Dioxin Tolerance in Atlantic Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) (JOURNAL)
Extreme tolerance to highly toxic dioxin-like contaminants (DLCs) has evolved independently and contemporaneously in (at least) four populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Surprisingly, the magnitude and phenotype of DLC tolerance is similar among these killi...
Journal Article: Infant Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Breast Milk (JOURNAL)
A simple, one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model is used to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents ...
Pentachlorophenol and cancer risk: Focusing the lens on specific chlorophenols and contaminants (JOURNAL)
Objective: Pentachlorophenol is a fungicide widely used as a wood preservative, classified in 1999 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a “possible human carcinogen”. We review currently available epidemiological research to determine the extent to which recent...
A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S. (JOURNAL)
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...
TRENDS IN DIOXIN AND PCB CONCENTRATIONS IN MEAT SAMPLES FROM SEVERAL DECADES OF THE 20TH CENTURY (JOURNAL)
Data from several studies suggest that concentrations of dioxins rose in the environment from the 1930s to about the 1960s/70s and have been declining over the last decade or two. The most direct evidence of this trend is lake core sediments, with some other evidence from older...
U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues (JOURNAL)
The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS (JOURNAL)
A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...
DETERMINATION OF 2,3,7,8 CHLORINE-SUBSTITUTED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND FURANS AT THE PART PER TRILLION LEVEL IN UNITED STATES BEEF FAT USING HIGH-RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (JOURNAL)
As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed natio...
BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION BY COPLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN TRACE LEVEL HIGH RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (HRGC/HRMS) ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES (JOURNAL)
The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...
ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN INHALATION EXPOSURES AND POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWERS (JOURNAL)
In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, EPA, other federal agencies, and New York City and New York State public health and environmental authorities initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better ...
ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS (JOURNAL)
During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...
AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS (JOURNAL)
Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...