Related Topics: Climate Change Research

Climate Change Research Products in the Science Inventory

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Records 51 to 75 of 263

Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 13, 2017]
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 d...
Chemical transport model simulations of organic aerosol in southern California: model evaluation and gasoline and diesel source contributions
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 30, 2017]
Gasoline- and diesel-fueled engines are ubiquitous sources of air pollution in urban environments. They emit both primary particulate matter and precursor gases that react to form secondary particulate matter in the atmosphere. In this work, we updated the organic aerosol module ...
Semivolatile POA and parameterized total combustion SOA in CMAQv5.2: impacts on source strength and partitioning
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 20, 2017]
Mounting evidence from field and laboratory observations coupled with atmospheric model analyses shows that primary combustion emissions of organic compounds dynamically partition between the vapor and particulate phases, especially as near-source emissions dilute and cool to amb...
Associations between environmental quality and mortality in the contiguous United States 2000-2005
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 01, 2017]
BACKGROUND: Assessing cumulative effects of the multiple environmental factors influencing mortality remains a challenging task. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the associations between cumulative environmental quality and all-cause and leading cause-specific (heart dise...
Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 18, 2017]
We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quali...
Community vulnerability to health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 20, 2017]
Identifying communities vulnerable to adverse health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke may help prepare responses, increase the resilience to smoke and improve public health outcomes during smoke days. We developed a Community Health-Vulnerability Index (CHVI) based on fact...
Monoterpenes are the largest source of summertime organic aerosol in the southeastern United States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 27, 2018]
The chemical complexity of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) has caused substantial uncertainties in understanding its origins and environmental impacts. Here, we provide constraints on OA origins through compositional characterization with molecular-level details. Our results sug...
Continuous flow hygroscopicity-resolved relaxed eddy accumulation (Hy-Res REA) method of measuring size-resolved sodium chloride particle fluxes
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 01, 2018]
The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here, we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring ...
Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 26, 2017]
When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable...
Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 15, 2017]
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...
Does temperature nudging overwhelm aerosol radiative effects in regional integrated climate models?
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 03, 2017]
For over two decades, data assimilation (popularly known as nudging) methods have been used for improving regional weather and climate simulations by reducing model biases in meteorological parameters and processes. Similar practice is also popular in many regional integrated met...
Evaluation of an Air Quality Health Index for Predicting the Mutagenicity of Simulated Atmospheres
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 06, 2018]
No study has evaluated the mutagenicity of atmospheres with a calculated air quality health index (AQHI). Thus, we generated in a UV-light-containing reaction chamber two simulated atmospheres (SAs) with similar AQHIs but different proportions of criteria pollutants and evaluated...
Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 22, 2018]
Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes) elsewher...
Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2017
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 28, 2018]
The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the...
Impacts of a large boreal wildfire on ground level atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, VOCs and ozone
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 02, 2018]
During May 2016 a very large boreal wildfire burned throughout the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in central Canada, and in close proximity to an extensive air quality monitoring network. This study examines speciated 24-h integrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and v...
A Comparison of Simulated and Field-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Canopy Height Values from Four Forest Complexes in the Southeastern USA
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 12, 2018]
Vegetative leaf area is a critical input to models that simulate human and ecosystem exposure to atmospheric pollutants. Leaf area index (LAI) can be measured in the field or numerically simulated, but all contain some inherent uncertainty that is passed to the exposure assessmen...
Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 17, 2015]
The leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of economic costs and benef...
Exposure to the elemental carbon, organic carbon, nitrate and sulfate fractions of fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005).
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 30, 2015]
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees, but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied.OBJECTIVE:We estimated risk differences (RD) of PTB (reported per 106 pregnancies...
Extending the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to Hemispheric Scales: Overview of Process Considerations and Initial Applications
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 19, 2017]
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to simulate ozone, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Modeled processes were examined and enhanced to suitably represent the extended space and timesca...
Improving the simulation of convective dust storms in regional-to-global models
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 21, 2017]
Convective dust storms have significant impacts on atmospheric conditions and air quality and are a major source of dust uplift in summertime. However, regional-to-global models generally do not accurately simulate these storms, a limitation that can be attributed to (1) using a ...
An examination of a voluntary policy model to effect behavioral change and influence interactions and decision-making in the freight sector
(JOURNAL) [Published : Dec 21, 2016]
An examination of a voluntary policy model to effect behavioral change and influence interactions and decision-making in the freight sector
Reducing emissions from freight transportation the “SmartWay”
(JOURNAL) [Published : Dec 01, 2016]
How to Develop a Green Freight Program
Enhanced representation of soil NO emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 16, 2016]
Modeling of soil nitric oxide (NO) emissions is highly uncertain and may misrepresent its spatial and temporal distribution. This study builds upon a recently introduced parameterization to improve the timing and spatial distribution of soil NO emission estimates in the Community...
Ecosystem-scale VOC fluxes during an extreme drought in a broad-leaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA)
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 21, 2015]
Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegetation and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately represented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere-atmo...
Climate benefits of U.S. EPA programs and policies that reduced methane emissions 1993-2013
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 26, 2016]
The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established voluntary programs to reduce CH4 emissions, as well as regulations that provide co-benefits of reducing CH4 emissions while controlling for other air pollutants. These programs and regulations address ...