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Records 1 to 25 of 261

Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2020
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 20, 2021]
Changes in solar UV radiation and climate have direct and indirect effects on the way in which cycling of elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles) and the fate of contaminants occur in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It is well established that a wide range of synt...
Comparison of EPIC-simulated and MODIS-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) across multiple spatial scales
(JOURNAL) [Published : Aug 26, 2020]
Modeled leaf area index (LAI) in conjunction with satellite-derived LAI data streams may be used to support various regional and local scale air quality models for retrospective and future meteorological assessments. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model holds ...
Associations Between Simulated Future Changes in Climate, Air Quality, and Human Health
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 04, 2021]
Importance Future changes in climate are likely to adversely affect human health by affecting concentrations of particulate matter sized less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in many areas. However, the degree to which these outcomes may be mitigated by reducing air polluta...
The impact of air pollution on terrestrial managed and natural vegetation.
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 30, 2020]
There is a long history of awareness of air pollution impacts on vegetation but until the twentieth century this was largely based on field observations of injury to vegetation in the absence of measurements of the pollutants. In the UK following the industrial revolution urban a...
Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Pellet-Fueled Gasifier Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 15, 2020]
Emissions from solid-fuel burning cookstoves are associated with 3 to 4 million premature deaths annually and contribute significantly to climate-forcing. Pellet-fueled gasifier stoves have some emission factors (EFs) approaching those of gas-fuel stoves; however, their emissions...
Assessment of NO2 Observations during DISCOVER-AQ and KORUS-AQ Field Campaigns
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 19, 2020]
NASA’s Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ, conducted in 2011–2014) campaign in the United States and the joint NASA and National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) Korea–United S...
Studying Scale Dependency of Aerosol Cloud Interactions using Scale-Aware Cloud Formulations
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 09, 2020]
The WRF-ACI model (documented in Part-I) is used to investigate the scale dependency of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) across the “grey zone” scales for grid scale and subgrid scale clouds. The impacts of ACI are examined across regions in the eastern and western U....
Evaluation of performance of household solar cookers
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 15, 2020]
Household solar cookers were evaluated according to ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers) Standard S580.1 – Testing and Reporting Solar Cooker Performance. Per ASAE S580.1, standardized cooking power at a temperature difference of 50°C between ambient air a...
Predicting Secondary Organic Aerosol Phase State and Viscosity and its Effect on Multiphase Chemistry in a Regional Scale Air Quality Model
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jul 16, 2020]
Atmospheric aerosols are a significant public health hazard and have substantial impacts on the climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have been shown to phase separate into a highly viscous organic outer layer and an aqueous core. This phase separation can decrease the partit...
Modeling and Controls Development of 48V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 03, 2018]
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types c...
Light absorption of secondary organic aerosol: Composition and contribution of nitro-aromatic compounds
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 17, 2017]
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collect...
Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2019
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 20, 2020]
This assessment, by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), one of three Panels informing the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, provides an update, since our previous extensive assessment (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, 18...
South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 04, 2016]
From June 2013 to March 2015, a total of 41 two-week duration passive sampler deployments were conducted at 17 sites in South Philadelphia, with results for benzene discussed here. Complementary time-resolved measurements with lower cost prototype fenceline sensors and an open-pa...
Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 11, 2017]
Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...
Associations between fine particulate matter, extreme heat events and congenital heart defects
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 16, 2019]
Previous research report associations between prenatal air pollution and the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Extreme heat events (EHE) may modify the effect of air pollution on CHD risk during pregnancy. The objective of this research was to estimate th...
Light absorption of organic carbon emitted from burning wood, charcoal and kerosene in household cookstoves
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 01, 2018]
Household cookstove emissions are an important source of carbonaceous aerosols globally. The light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from cookstove emissions can impact the Earth’s radiative balance, but is rarely investigated. In this work, PM2.5 fil...
Solar UV radiation in a changing world: roles of cryosphere–land–water–atmosphere interfaces in global biogeochemical cycles
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 27, 2019]
Global change influences biogeochemical cycles within and between environmental compartments (i.e., the cryosphere, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and the atmosphere). A major effect of global change on carbon cycling is altered exposure of natural organic matter (NOM) to so...
Dry Deposition of Ozone Over Land: Processes, Measurement, and Modeling
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 01, 2020]
Dry deposition of ozone is an important sink of ozone in near surface air. When dry deposition occurs through plant stomata, ozone can injure the plant, altering water and carbon cycling and reducing crop yields. Quantifying both stomatal and nonstomatal uptake accurately is rele...
How do natural features in the residential environment influence women's self-reported general health? Results from cross-sectional analyses of a U.S. national cohort
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 01, 2020]
Background The relationship between health and human interaction with nature is complex. Here we conduct analyses to provide insights into potential health benefits related to residential proximity to nature. Objectives We aimed to examine associations between measures of reside...
Simulating lightning NO production in CMAQv5.2: evolution of scientific updates
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jul 18, 2019]
This work describes the lightning nitric oxide (LNO) production schemes in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We first document the existing LNO production scheme and vertical distribution algorithm. We then describe updates that were made to the scheme originally...
Significant ground-level ozone attributed to lightning-induced nitrogen oxides during summertime over the Mountain West States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 30, 2020]
Using lightning flash data from the National Lightning Detection Network with an updated lightning nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission estimation algorithm in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, we estimate the hourly variations in lightning NOx emissions for the summer...
An Integrated Agriculture, Atmosphere, and Hydrology Modeling System for Ecosystem Assessments
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 24, 2020]
We present a regional‐scale integrated modeling system (IMS) that includes Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC), Weather Research and Forecast (WRF), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ), and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models. The centerpiece of the ...
Projections of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
(JOURNAL) [Published : Dec 26, 2019]
Atmospheric deposition is among the largest pathways of nitrogen loading to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). The interplay between future climate and emission changes in and around the CBW will shift the future nutrient deposition abundance and regime (e.g., oxidized vs. redu...
New Bidirectional Ammonia Flux Model in an Air Quality Model Coupled With an Agricultural Model
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 24, 2019]
Ammonia surface flux is often bidirectional, i.e., net flux can be either upward or downward. In fertilized agricultural croplands and grasslands there is usually more emission than deposition especially in mid-day during warmer seasons. In North America, most of the ammonia emi...
The Impact of the Direct Effect of Aerosols on Meteorology and Air Quality Using Aerosol Optical Depth Assimilation During the KORUS‐AQ Campaign
(JOURNAL) [Published : Aug 15, 2019]
To quantify the impact of the direct aerosol effect accurately, this study incorporated the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) aerosol optical depth (AOD) into a coupled meteorology‐chemistry model. We designed three model simulations to observe the impact of AOD assim...