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Air Research Products in the Science Inventory

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Records 26 to 50 of 133

Light absorption of secondary organic aerosol: Composition and contribution of nitro-aromatic compounds
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 17, 2017]
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collect...
Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-ion Battery Pack
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 03, 2018]
As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty...
Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 03, 2018]
The thermal efficiency benefits of low-pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark-ignition engine combustion are well known. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of LP-EGR for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting. Variable nozzle turbin...
Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 03, 2018]
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL- EGR) combined with a higher compression ratio is a technology package that has been the focus of significant research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged GDI engines. Research shows that the addition ...
Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 11, 2017]
Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...
Universal industrial sectors integrated solutions modulefor the pulp and paper industry
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 01, 2017]
The U.S. is the world’s second-leading producer of pulp and paper products after China. While the pulp and paper industry has reduced its environmental impacts, concerns remain regarding the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the sector. Boilers, ...
Exploring the role of natural gas power plants with carbon capture and storage as a bridge to a low-carbon future
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 02, 2018]
Natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) turbines with carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions in the electric sector. However, the high cost and energy penalties of current carbon capture devices, as well as methane leakage from natural ga...
Warmer Temperatures Reduce Net Carbon Uptake, but Do Not Affect Water Use, in a Mature Southern Appalachian Forest
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 15, 2018]
Increasing air temperature is expected to extend growing season length in temperate, broadleaf forests, leading to potential increases in evapotranspiration and net carbon uptake. However, other key processes affecting water and carbon cycles are also highly temperature-dependent...
Lake Water Levels and Associated Hydrologic Characteristics in the Conterminous U.S.
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 01, 2020]
Water withdrawal and changing climate conditions may alter lake water levels beyond normal ranges. Documenting potential changes requires understanding lake hydrology across regional environmental gradients. We assessed hydrologic characteristics of lakes in the conterminous U.S....
Rubbertown Next Generation Emissions Measurements Demonstration Project June 2019
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 08, 2019]
Product Description: Industrial facilities have the potential to emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and odorous species from unintended sources including fugitive leaks, process malfunctions, and improperly controlled operations. Stochastic i...
Light absorption of organic carbon emitted from burning wood, charcoal and kerosene in household cookstoves
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 01, 2018]
Household cookstove emissions are an important source of carbonaceous aerosols globally. The light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from cookstove emissions can impact the Earth’s radiative balance, but is rarely investigated. In this work, PM2.5 fil...
Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 16, 2018]
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas standards, and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civ...
Holistic Analysis of Urban Water Systems in the Greater Cincinnati Region: (1) Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Implications
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 01, 2019]
Urban water and wastewater utilities are striving to improve their environmental and economic performances due to multi-challenges such as increasingly stringent quality criterion, aging infrastructure, constraining financial burden, growing urban population, climate challenges a...
Isoprene Emission Response to Drought and the Impact on Global Atmospheric Chemistry
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jul 01, 2018]
Biogenic isoprene emissions play a very important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are strongly dependent on various environmental conditions, such as temperature, solar radiation, plant water stress, ambient ozone and CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture. Current biogenic ...
Light absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions
(JOURNAL) [Published : Aug 04, 2017]
The light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols plays an important role in the atmospheric radiation balance. Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also called brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution ...
A Laboratory Comparison of Emission Factors, Number Size Distributions, and Morphology of Ultrafine Particles from 11 Different Household Cookstove-Fuel Systems
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 12, 2017]
Ultrafine particle (UFP) emissions and particle number size distributions (PNSD) are critical in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on human health and climate change. Residential cookstove emissions are a major source of many air pollutants; however, data on UFP number emis...
New plastic recycling technology
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 01, 2017]
Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...
Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 20, 2017]
A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...
Effects of recent energy system changes on CO2 projections for the United States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Nov 01, 2017]
Recent projections of United States carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are considerably lower than those made just a decade ago. A myriad of factors have contributed to lower forecasts, including reductions in end-use energy service demands, improvements in energy efficiency, techno...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 14, 2017]
This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...
A framework for nitrogen futures in the shared socioeconomic pathways
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 01, 2020]
Humanity’s transformation of the nitrogen cycle has major consequences for ecosystems, climate and human health, making it one of the key environmental issues of our time. Understanding how trends could evolve over the course of the 21st century is crucial for scientists an...
Individual Based Modelling of Fish Migration in a 2-D River System:Model Development and Case Study
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 01, 2019]
Conditions within migration corridors that organisms move through can strongly influence their probability of surviving and arriving to their destinations. Diadromous fish populations in the Pacific Northwest face challenges along their migratory routes from declining habitat qua...
Penumbra: A spatially distributed, mechanistic model for simulating ground-level incident solar energy across heterogeneous landscapes
(JOURNAL) [Published : Dec 19, 2018]
Landscape solar energy is a significant environmental driver, yet it remains complicated to model well. Several solar radiation models simplify the complexity of light by estimating it at discrete point locations or by averaging values over larger areas. These modeling approaches...
Multigenerational Theoretical Study of Isoprene Peroxy Radical 1–5-Hydrogen Shift Reactions that Regenerate HOx Radicals and Produce Highly Oxidized Molecules
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 31, 2019]
A computational protocol is employed to glean new insight into the kinetics of several 1,5-hydrogen atom (H) shift reactions subsequent to first- and second-generation OH/O2 additions to isoprene. The M06-2X density functional was initially used with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB)...
Improved soil temperature modeling using spatially explicit solar energy drivers
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 09, 2018]
Modeling the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil temperature is deterministically complex due to the wide variability of several influential environmental variables, including soil column composition, soil moisture, air temperature, and solar energy. Landscape incident solar ra...