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Records 1 to 25 of 196

Context is Everything: Interacting Inputs and Landscape Characteristics Control Stream Nitrogen.
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 01, 2021]
Assessing the effectiveness of actions designed to improve water quality requires adequate monitoring of aquatic ecosystems paired with information about landscape and climate drivers. To understand spatial and temporal trends in stream total nitrogen (TN) concentrations across t...
Comprehensive evaluations of diurnal NO2 measurements during DISCOVER-AQ 2011: effects of resolution-dependent representation of NOx emissions
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jul 23, 2021]
Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO2NO2) play a crucial role in the formation of ozone and secondary inorganic and organic aerosols, thus affecting human health, global radiation budget, and climate. The diurnal and spatial variations in NO2 are functions of emissions, advection, deposi...
Mining of Consumer Product Ingredient and Purchasing Data to Identify Potential Chemical Coexposures
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 01, 2021]
Background: Chemicals in consumer products are a major contributor to human chemical coexposures. Consumers purchase and use a wide variety of products containing potentially thousands of chemicals. There is a need to identify potential real-world chemical coexposures to prioriti...
Assessing ecological risks from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur to US Forests using epiphytic macrolichens
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 03, 2019]
Critical loads of atmospheric deposition help decision-makers identify harmful levels of air pollution. But when critical loads are exceeded, how can the accompanying environmental risk be quantified? We use epiphytic macrolichens to assess risks from nitrogen and sulfur-containi...
Designing QSARs for Parameters of High-Throughput Toxicokinetic Models Using Open-Source Descriptors Env. Sci. Tech.
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 04, 2021]
The intrinsic metabolic clearance rate (Clint) and the fraction of the chemical unbound in plasma (fup) serve as important parameters for high-throughput toxicokinetic (TK) models, but experimental data are limited for many chemicals. Open-source quantitative structure–acti...
Evaluating long-term emission impacts of large-scale electric vehicle deployment in the US using a human-Earth systems model
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 15, 2021]
While large-scale adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) globally would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) and traditional air pollutant emissions from the transportation sector, emissions from the electric sector, refineries, and potentially other sources would change in response. Here, a...
AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE SENSITIVITY TO CHANGING AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 02, 2019]
Agricultural best management practices (BMPs) reduce non-point source pollution from cropland. Goals for BMP adoption and expected pollutant load reductions are often specified in water quality management plans to protect and restore waterbodies; however, estimates of needed load...
Assessment of NO2 Observations during DISCOVER-AQ and KORUS-AQ Field Campaigns
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 19, 2020]
NASA’s Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ, conducted in 2011–2014) campaign in the United States and the joint NASA and National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) Korea–United S...
Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 15, 2017]
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...
A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.1
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 13, 2017]
This paper describes the development and implementation of an extendable aqueous-phase chemistry option (AQCHEM − KMT(I)) for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, version 5.1. Here, the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP), version 2.2.3, is used to generate a Rosen...
Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 13, 2017]
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 d...
Grassland-to-cropland conversion increased soil, nutrient, and carbon losses in the US Midwest between 2008 and 2016
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 07, 2021]
After decades of declining cropland area, the United States (US) experienced a reversal in land use/land cover change in recent years, with substantial areas in grassland cover converting to cropland in the US Midwest. Although previous studies estimated soil carbon (C) loss due ...
Patterns and predictions of drinking water nitrate violations across the conterminous United States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 01, 2020]
Excess nitrate in drinking water is a human health concern, especially for young children. When a public drinking water system exceeds the 10 mg nitrate-N/L maximum contaminant level (MCL), that system is in violation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Nati...
Threshold Effects of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Understory Plant Communities at Forested Sites in the Eastern United States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jul 01, 2020]
Forest understory plant communities in the eastern United States are often diverse and are potentially sensitive to changes in climate and atmospheric inputs of nitrogen caused by air pollution. In recent years, empirical and processed-based mathematical models have been develope...
Increasingly severe cyanobacterial blooms and deep water hypoxia coincide with warming water temperatures in reservoirs
(JOURNAL) [Published : May 07, 2021]
Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to intensify and become more widespread with climate change and sustained nutrient pollution, subsequently increasing threats to lentic ecosystems, water quality, and human health. However, little is known about their rates of change because lon...
Rapid production of highly oxidized molecules in isoprene aerosol via peroxy and alkoxy radical isomerization pathways in low and high NOx environments: Combined laboratory, computational and field studies
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 25, 2021]
Recently, we identified seven novel hydroxy-carboxylic acids resulting from gas-phase reactions of isoprene in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and/or hydroxyl radicals (OH). In the present study, we provide evidence that hydroxy-carboxylic acids, namely methylt...
Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2020
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 20, 2021]
Changes in solar UV radiation and climate have direct and indirect effects on the way in which cycling of elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles) and the fate of contaminants occur in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It is well established that a wide range of synt...
Surveillance for harmful algal bloom events and associated human and animal illnesses—One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System, United States, 2016—2018
(JOURNAL) [Published : Dec 18, 2020]
Harmful algal bloom (HAB) events can result from the rapid growth, or bloom, of photosynthesizing organisms in natural waterbodies. HAB events can be exacerbated by nutrient pollution and a warming climate (1) and can negatively impact the health of humans, animals, and the envir...
Diets Enriched with Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil Modify Peripheral Metabolic Effects of Ozone in Rats
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 01, 2021]
Dietary factors may modulate metabolic effects of air pollutant exposures. We hypothesized that diets enriched with coconut oil (CO), fish oil (FO), or olive oil (OO) would alter ozone-induced metabolic responses. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats (1-month-old) were fed normal diet (ND), or...
The impact of air pollution on terrestrial managed and natural vegetation.
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 30, 2020]
There is a long history of awareness of air pollution impacts on vegetation but until the twentieth century this was largely based on field observations of injury to vegetation in the absence of measurements of the pollutants. In the UK following the industrial revolution urban a...
Factors influencing carbon stocks and accumulation rates in eelgrass meadows across New England, USA
(JOURNAL) [Published : Dec 01, 2020]
Increasing the protection of coastal vegetated ecosystems has been suggested as one strategy to compensate for increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere as the capacity of these habitats to sequester and store carbon exceeds that of terrestrial habitats. Seagrasses are a ...
Offspring Susceptibility to Metabolic Alterations Due to Maternal High-Fat Diet and the Impact of Inhaled Ozone Used as a Stressor
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 01, 2020]
The influence of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on metabolic response to ozone was examined in Long-Evans rat offspring. F0 females were fed control diet (CD; 10%kcal from fat) or HFD (60%kcal from fat) starting at post-natal day (PND) 30. Rats were bred on PND 72. Dietary regimen ...
Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Pellet-Fueled Gasifier Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 15, 2020]
Emissions from solid-fuel burning cookstoves are associated with 3 to 4 million premature deaths annually and contribute significantly to climate-forcing. Pellet-fueled gasifier stoves have some emission factors (EFs) approaching those of gas-fuel stoves; however, their emissions...
A Community EcoHealth Index from EnviroAtlas Ecosystem Services Metrics
(JOURNAL) [Published : Aug 02, 2019]
Human health is inextricably tied to ecosystem services (ES), including those associated with greenspace in urban communities. EnviroAtlas provides close to 100 maps of ES metrics based on high-resolution land cover data in featured communities across the contiguous United States...
Sediment retention by natural landscapes in the conterminous United States
(JOURNAL) [Published : Nov 01, 2020]
Soil functions provide vital ecosystem services, from sequestering carbon to providing food and moderating floods. Soil erosion threatens the provisioning of these services while deteriorating downstream water quality. Vegetation plays an important role in soil retention – by hol...