Related Topics: Air Research

Air Research Products in the Science Inventory

Records 1 to 25 of 105

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5L Turbo Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines (JOURNAL)
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas standards, and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civ...
Penumbra: A spatially distributed, mechanistic model for simulating ground-level incident solar energy across heterogeneous landscapes (JOURNAL)
Landscape solar energy is a significant environmental driver, yet it remains complicated to model well. Several solar radiation models simplify the complexity of light by estimating it at discrete point locations or by averaging values over larger areas. These modeling approaches...
Holistic Analysis of Urban Water Systems in the Greater Cincinnati Region: (1) Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Implications (JOURNAL)
Urban water and wastewater utilities are striving to improve their environmental and economic performances due to multi-challenges such as increasingly stringent quality criterion, aging infrastructure, constraining financial burden, growing urban population, climate challenges a...
Multigenerational Theoretical Study of Isoprene Peroxy Radical 1–5-Hydrogen Shift Reactions that Regenerate HOx Radicals and Produce Highly Oxidized Molecules (JOURNAL)
A computational protocol is employed to glean new insight into the kinetics of several 1,5-hydrogen atom (H) shift reactions subsequent to first- and second-generation OH/O2 additions to isoprene. The M06-2X density functional was initially used with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB)...
Improved soil temperature modeling using spatially explicit solar energy drivers (JOURNAL)
Modeling the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil temperature is deterministically complex due to the wide variability of several influential environmental variables, including soil column composition, soil moisture, air temperature, and solar energy. Landscape incident solar ra...
HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution (JOURNAL)
The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, ...
Isoprene Emission Response to Drought and the Impact on Global Atmospheric Chemistry (JOURNAL)
Biogenic isoprene emissions play a very important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are strongly dependent on various environmental conditions, such as temperature, solar radiation, plant water stress, ambient ozone and CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture. Current biogenic ...
Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-ion Battery Pack (JOURNAL)
As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty...
Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine (JOURNAL)
The thermal efficiency benefits of low-pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark-ignition engine combustion are well known. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of LP-EGR for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting. Variable nozzle turbin...
Modeling and Controls Development of 48V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles (JOURNAL)
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types c...
Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine (JOURNAL)
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL- EGR) combined with a higher compression ratio is a technology package that has been the focus of significant research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged GDI engines. Research shows that the addition ...
Exploring the role of natural gas power plants with carbon capture and storage as a bridge to a low-carbon future (JOURNAL)
Natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) turbines with carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions in the electric sector. However, the high cost and energy penalties of current carbon capture devices, as well as methane leakage from natural ga...
Evaluating the Performance of Household Liquefied Petroleum Gas Cookstoves (JOURNAL)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cookstoves are considered to be an important solution for mitigating household air pollution; however, their performance has rarely been evaluated. To fill the data and knowledge gaps in this important area, laboratory tests (number of tests: 89) wer...
Effects of recent energy system changes on CO2 projections for the United States (JOURNAL)
Recent projections of United States carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are considerably lower than those made just a decade ago. A myriad of factors have contributed to lower forecasts, including reductions in end-use energy service demands, improvements in energy efficiency, techno...
The effectiveness of Light Rail transit in achieving regional CO2 emissions targets is linked to building energy use: insights from system dynamics modeling (JOURNAL)
Cities worldwide face the challenges of accommodating a growing population, while reducing emissions to meet climate mitigation targets. Public transit investments are often proposed as a way to curb emissions while maintaining healthy urban economies. However, cities face a syst...
Projecting state-level air pollutant emissions using an integrated assessment model: GCAM-USA. (JOURNAL)
Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) characterize the interactions among human and earth systems. IAMs typically have been applied to investigate future energy, land use, and emission pathways at global to continental scales. Recent directions in IAM development include enhanced t...
Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest (JOURNAL)
Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...
New plastic recycling technology (JOURNAL)
Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...
Light absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions (JOURNAL)
The light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols plays an important role in the atmospheric radiation balance. Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also called brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution ...
Warmer temperatures reduce net carbon uptake, but not water use, in a mature southern Appalachian forest (JOURNAL)
Increasing air temperature is expected to extend growing season length in temperate, broadleaf forests, leading to potential increases in evapotranspiration and net carbon uptake. However, other key processes affecting water and carbon cycles are also highly temperature-dependent...
Light absorption of secondary organic aerosol: Composition and contribution of nitro-aromatic compounds (JOURNAL)
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collect...
Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling (JOURNAL)
A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...
Continuous flow hygroscopicity-resolved relaxed eddy accumulation (Hy-Res REA) method of measuring size-resolved sodium chloride particle fluxes (JOURNAL)
The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here, we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring ...
Energy and greenhouse gas life cycle assessment and cost analysis of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems: Influence of scale, population density, climate, and methane recovery (JOURNAL)
This study calculated the energy and greenhouse gas life cycle and cost profiles of transitional aerobic membrane bioreactors (AeMBR) and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Membrane bioreactors (MBR) represent a promising technology for decentralized wastewater treatment and...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves (JOURNAL)
This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...