Related Topics: Air Research

Air Research Products in the Science Inventory

Records 1 to 25 of 387

Characterizing Air Quality in a Rapidly Changing World (JOURNAL)
The purpose of this paper is to 1) highlight projects collecting large volumes of unique air quality data; 2) explore how the collection of big data fits into the overall picture of air quality management and characterization; 3) provide an update on the E-Enterprise advanced mon...
Evaluating a Space-Based Indicator of Surface Ozone-NOx-VOC Sensitivity Over Midlatitude Source Regions and Application to Decadal Trends (JOURNAL)
Determining effective strategies for mitigating surface ozone (O3) pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentrations of its precursors, NOx, and VOCs. The space-based tropospheric column ratio of formaldehyde to NO2 (FNR) has been used as an indicator to identif...
The health impacts and economic value of wildland fire episodes in the U.S.: 2008-2012 (JOURNAL)
Introduction: Wildland fires degrade regional air quality and adversely affect human health. A growing body of epidemiology literature report increased rates of emergency department, hospital admission and premature deaths from wildfire smoke exposure. Objective: Our research a...
Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature (JOURNAL)
We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quali...
Dietary and Pharmacological Intervention to Mitigate the Cardiopulmonary Effects of Air Pollution Toxicity (JOURNAL)
Background: Human exposure to air pollution has long been associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Although regulatory measures carried out under the “Clean Air Act” have saved millions of lives, there are still hundreds of thousands of people in the U.S. that live in area...
Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States (JOURNAL)
The leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of economic costs and benef...
Exposure to the elemental carbon, organic carbon, nitrate and sulfate fractions of fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005). (JOURNAL)
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees, but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied.OBJECTIVE:We estimated risk differences (RD) of PTB (reported per 106 pregnancies...
Ozone exposure is associated with acute changes in inflammation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial cell function in coronary artery disease patients (JOURNAL)
Background: Air pollution is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, of which ozone is a major contributor. Several studies have found associations between ozone and cardiovascular morbidity, but the results have been inconclusive. We investigated associations between oz...
Association Between Satellite-based Estimates of Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Coronary Artery Disease (JOURNAL)
Background: Epidemiological studies have identified associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and cardiovascular events, though most have relied on concentrations from central-site air quality monitors. Methods: We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone cardiac ...
Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Particulate Matter in Cleveland, Ohio, USA (JOURNAL)
The Cleveland airshed comprises a complex mixture of industrial source emissions that contribute to periods of non-attainment for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and are associated with increased adverse health outcomes in the exposed population. Specific PM sources responsible...
Associations between environmental quality and mortality in the contiguous United States 2000-2005 (JOURNAL)
BACKGROUND: Assessing cumulative effects of the multiple environmental factors influencing mortality remains a challenging task. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the associations between cumulative environmental quality and all-cause and leading cause-specific (heart dise...
Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats (JOURNAL)
BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...
Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults? (JOURNAL)
Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...
Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone (JOURNAL)
The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...
Air Pollution and Insulin Resistance: Do All Roads Lead to Rome? (JOURNAL)
The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide in 2012, nearly 7 million deaths occurred prematurely due to air pollution (1). In addition to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, air pollution exposure is also linked to increased incidence of diabetes (2). Notably, th...
Community Air Sensor Network Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods (JOURNAL)
This is an extended abstract that will be part of the peer-reviewed proceedings of the AWMA annual meeting in 2015. The extended abstract covers preliminary results from the CAIRSENSE project, which involves testing low cost sensors at an NCore site in Atlanta, GA.
Semivolatile POA and parameterized total combustion SOA in CMAQv5.2: impacts on source strength and partitioning (JOURNAL)
Mounting evidence from field and laboratory observations coupled with atmospheric model analyses shows that primary combustion emissions of organic compounds dynamically partition between the vapor and particulate phases, especially as near-source emissions dilute and cool to amb...
Low-Cost Sensor POD Design Considerations (JOURNAL)
Public concern about air quality is growing in communities around the globe as citizens learn more about the potential health effects of the air they breathe.1 Air quality monitoring has often been restricted to organizations administering Federal Reference Method (FRM) or Federa...
The influence of ocean halogen and sulfur emissions in the air quality of a coastal megacity: The case of Los Angeles (JOURNAL)
The oceans are the main source of natural halogen and sulfur compounds, which have a significant influence on the oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere; however, their impact on the air quality of coastal cities is currently unknown. We explore the effect of marine halogens...
Extending the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to Hemispheric Scales: Overview of Process Considerations and Initial Applications (JOURNAL)
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to simulate ozone, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Modeled processes were examined and enhanced to suitably represent the extended space and timesca...
Projecting state-level air pollutant emissions using an integrated assessment model: GCAM-USA. (JOURNAL)
Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) characterize the interactions among human and earth systems. IAMs typically have been applied to investigate future energy, land use, and emission pathways at global to continental scales. Recent directions in IAM development include enhanced t...
Barrierless Reactions with Loose Transition States Govern the Yields and Lifetimes of Organic Nitrates Derived from Isoprene (JOURNAL)
The chemical reaction mechanism of NO addition to two β and δ isoprene hydroxy–peroxy radical isomers is examined in detail using density functional theory, coupled cluster methods, and the energy resolved master equation formalism to provide estimates of rate co...
Sensitivities of Summertime Mesoscale Circulations in the Coastal Carolinas to Modifications of the Kain–Fritsch Cumulus Parameterization (JOURNAL)
Two mesoscale circulations, the Sandhills circulation and the sea breeze, influence the initiation of deep convection over the Sandhills and the coast in the Carolinas during the summer months. The interaction of these two circulations causes additional convection in this coastal...
NO to NO2 conversion rate analysis and implications for dispersion model chemistrymethods using Las Vegas, Nevada near-road field measurements (JOURNAL)
Nitrogen dioxide/oxides of nitrogen (NO2/NOX) ratios are an important surrogate for nitric oxide (NO) NO-to-NO2 chemistry in dispersion models when estimating NOX emissions in a near-road environment. Existing dispersion models use different techniques and assumptions to represe...
Near-Port Air Quality Assessment Utilizing a Mobile Monitoring Approach (JOURNAL)
Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate an...