Office of Research and Development Publications

Records 1 to 25 of 2994 Journals from ORD published between 08/21/2013 and 08/21/2018

Modeling NH4NO3 Over the San Joaquin Valley During the 2013 DISCOVER‐AQ Campaign (JOURNAL)
The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California experiences high concentrations of particulate matter NH4NO3 during episodes of meteorological stagnation in winter. A rich data set of observations related to NH4NO3 formation was acquired during multiple periods of elevated NH4NO3 duri...
Spatio-temporal dynamics of inherent optical properties in oligotrophic northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries (JOURNAL)
Coastal and estuarine ecosystems provide numerous economic and environmental benefits to society. However, increasing anthropogenic activities and developmental pressure may stress these areas and hamper their ecosystem services. Satellite remote sensing could be used as a tool f...
Characterization of River Networks: A GIS Approach and Its Applications (JOURNAL)
Fluvial geomorphology provides the basis for characterizing complex river networks and evaluating biophysical processes within watersheds. Understanding the spatial organization of morphological features, their influencing processes, and resultant geomorphic diversity in stream n...
The Chemical and Products Database, a resource for exposure-relevant data on chemicals in consumer products (JOURNAL)
Quantitative data on product chemical composition is a necessary parameter for characterizing near-field exposure. This data set comprises reported and predicted information on more than 75,000 chemicals and more than 15,000 consumer products. The data’s primary intended us...
Assessing threats of non-native species to native freshwater biodiversity: Conservation priorities for the United States (JOURNAL)
Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity, and can have severe negative impacts in freshwater ecosystems. Identifying regions of spatial overlap between high freshwater biodiversity and high invasion pressure may thus better inform the prioritizat...
Investigating the Role of Biofilms in Trihalomethane Formation in Water Distribution Systems with a Multicomponent Model (JOURNAL)
Biofilms ubiquitously exist in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). Their role in the formation and fate of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) is largely unknown. Recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial biomass car...
Greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater reservoirs: what does the atmosphere see? (JOURNAL)
Freshwater impoundments, like all inland aquatic systems, are sites of intense carbon processing and transport. They receive carbon in several forms (coarsely aggregated into dissolved and particulate fractions of both inorganic and organic forms), convert one C species to anothe...
Foliar application of zinc sulphate and zinc EDTA to wheat leaves: differences in mobility, distribution, and speciation (JOURNAL)
Foliar application of zinc (Zn) to crops is an effective way to increase the grain concentration of Zn. However, the development of more efficient foliar Zn fertilizers is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding the distribution, mobility, and speciation of Zn in leaves once i...
Mechanisms of Phosphorus Removal by Phosphorus Sorbing Materials (JOURNAL)
Stormwater filters are a structural best management practice designed to reduce dissolved P losses from runoff. Various industrial byproducts are suitable for use as P sorbing materials (PSMs) for the treatment of drainage water; P sorption by PSMs varies with material physical a...
Point of Zero Charge: Role in Pyromorphite Formation and Bioaccessibility of Lead and Arsenic in Phosphate-Amended Soils (JOURNAL)
Soluble lead (Pb) can be immobilized in pure systems as pyromorphite through the addition of phosphorus (P) sources; however, uncertainties remain in natural systems. Knowledge of point zero charge (PZC) is important to predict the ionization of functional groups and their intera...
Harvesting the Promise of AOPs: An assessment and recommendations (JOURNAL)
The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept was developed specifically to serve as a knowledge assembly and communication tool to facilitate the transparent translation of mechanistic information into outcomes meaningful to the regulatory assessment of chemicals. However, as the AO...
Interactions of predominant insects and diseases with climate change in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. (JOURNAL)
Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated shifts associated with global climate change, and these patterns will likely continue due to continuing changes in environmental conditions. Tree growth is largely controlled by the physiological const...
Estimating wetland connectivity to streams in the Prairie Pothole Region: an isotopic and remote sensing approach (JOURNAL)
Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding the reliance of stream flow on input from wetlands. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Cre...
Validity of Self-Reported Concentration and Memory Problems: Relationship with Neuropsychological Assessment and Depression (JOURNAL)
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Changes in metabolites present in lung-lining fluid following exposure of humans to ozone (JOURNAL)
Controlled human exposure to the oxidant air pollutant ozone causes decrements in lung function and increased inflammation as evidenced by neutrophil influx into the lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the airways. Here we describe a targeted metabolomics ev...
Transcriptome Changes of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Laboratory Strains in Response to Photo-Degraded DOM (JOURNAL)
In this study, we investigated gene expression changes in three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli C3000, Escherichia coli O157:H7 B6914, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212), commonly used as indicators of water quality and as control strains in clinical, food, and water micro...
Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched with Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil (JOURNAL)
Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonar...
Use of High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by the IARC Monograph Working Groups (JOURNAL)
Purpose: Evaluation of carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in IARC monograph evaluations, and can lead to “upgrade” or “downgrade” of the carcinogenicity conclusions based on human and animal evidence alone. Three recent IARC monograph Working Groups (110, 112, and 11...
Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water — United States, 2013–2014 (JOURNAL)
Provision of safe water in the United States is important for protecting public health (1). Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to CDC through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (http://www.cdc....
Comammox functionality in Diverse Engineered Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems (JOURNAL)
Complete ammonia oxidation (comammox) to nitrate in certain Nitrospira-lineage bacteria (CMX) could be problematic to engineered biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes due to the ability of CMX to compete for substrates with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizin...
Neuroendocrine regulation of air pollution health effects: Emerging insights (JOURNAL)
Air pollutant exposure is linked to cardiopulmonary diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, neurobehavioral conditions, and reproductive abnormalities. As such, there is growing investment in understanding how pollutants encountered by the lung might induce effects in distant org...
Effects of Simulated Smog Atmospheres in Rodent Models of Metabolic and Immunologic Dysfunction (JOURNAL)
Air pollution is a diverse and dynamic mixture of gaseous and particulate matter. This complexity has limited our understanding of adverse health outcomes resulting from common types of air contaminants. The biological effects of two simulated smog atmospheres (SA) generated in a...
Human lung injury following exposure to humic substances and humic-like substances (JOURNAL)
Abstract Among the myriad particles the human respiratory tract is exposed to, a significant number are distinctive in that they include h...
Developing a Model-based Drinking Water Decision Support System Featuring Remote Sensing and Fast Learning Techniques (JOURNAL)
Timely adjustment of operating strategies in drinking water treatment in response to water quality variations of both natural and anthropogenic causes is a grand technical challenge. One essential approach is to develop and apply integrated sensing, monitoring, and modeling techn...
Screening the ToxCast phase II libraries for alterations in network function using cortical neurons grown on multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) plates (JOURNAL)
Methods are needed for rapid screening of environmental compounds for neurotoxicity, particularly ones that assess function. To demonstrate the utility of microelectrode array (MEA)-based approaches as a rapid neurotoxicity screening tool, 1055 chemicals from EPA’s phase II...