Office of Research and Development Publications

Records 1 to 25 of 2937 Journals from ORD published between 08/21/2013 and 08/21/2018

Long-term nutrient addition increases respiration and nitrous oxide emissions in a New England salt marsh (JOURNAL)
Salt marshes may act either as greenhouse gas (GHG) sources or sinks depending on hydrological conditions, vegetation communities, and nutrient availability. In recent decades, eutrophication has emerged as a major driver of change in salt marsh ecosystems. An ongoing fertilizati...
Characterize Sources for Exposure Assessment of Chemicals in Indoor Environment (JOURNAL)
Smart new strategies to design, produce, and use safer chemicals to minimize risks and prevent pollution are a priority for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA is developing a comprehensive approach to enhance the Agency’s management of existing chemicals and emer...
Let's Get Moving and Write Software – an Open Source Project for EPANET (JOURNAL)
Water infrastructure simulation models, such as EPANET and SWMM, have played a significant role in simulating water distribution, stormwater and sanitary sewer systems. These software packages have played an important, and varying, role to different portions of the water infrast...
Adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation (JOURNAL)
Recent studies showed that the circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone-induced pulmonary effects through the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Hence, w...
Mutagenicity and Lung Toxicity of Smoldering vs. Flaming Emissions from Various Biomass Fuels: Implications for Health Effects from Wildland Fires (JOURNAL)
BACKGROUND: The increasing size and frequency of wildland fires are leading to greater potential for cardiopulmonary disease and cancer in exposed populations, however little is known on how the types of fuel and combustion phases affect these adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We e...
Microbial ecoenzyme stoichiometry, nutrient limitation, and organic matter decomposition in wetlands of the conterminous United States (JOURNAL)
We analyzed microbial respiration and ecoenzyme activities related to microbial carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur acquisition in more than 900 freshwater and estuarine wetlands across the continental US as part of the US EPA Office of Water’s 2011 National Wetland Conditio...
Does National Wetland Inventory class consistently identify vegetation and edaphic differences in Oregon tidal wetlands? (JOURNAL)
Accurately mapping, modeling, and managing the diversity of wetlands present in estuaries often relies on habitat classification systems that consistently identify differences in biotic structure or other ecosystem characteristics between classes. We used field data from four Ore...
Assessing natural infection with Zika virus in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, during 2016 in Puerto Rico (JOURNAL)
The epidemic of Zika in the Western hemisphere has led to intense investigations of all species important in the transmission of Zika virus (ZikV), including putative mosquito vectors. Although evidence points to Stegomyia (= Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes as the primary ...
Shifts in N and δ15N in wheat and barley exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles (JOURNAL)
The effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) on 15N/14N ratio (δ15N) in wheat and barley were investigated. Seedlings were exposed to 0 and 500 mg CeO2-NPs/L (Ce-0 and Ce-500, respectively) in hydroponic suspension supplied with NH4NO3, NH4+, or NO3−. N ...
Evolution of the United States energy system and related emissions under varying social and technological development paradigms: Plausible scenarios for use in robust decision making. (JOURNAL)
Energy infrastructure decisions often impact the future energy system and air quality for many decades into the future. Therefore, it is important to properly evaluate those decisions, which is difficult given the high level of uncertainty in projecting the future. This paper use...
Vertically challenged: how parasite infection affects diel vertical migration behavior in Daphnia pulicaria populations (JOURNAL)
Parasite infections and the resulting forms of disease pathology are increasingly recognized as influential forces in the migratory behaviors of hosts ranging from butterflies to whales. In aquatic zooplankton, diel vertical migrations (DVM) are among the most recurrent behaviors...
Influence of siloxane on the transport of ZnO nanoparticles from different release pathways in saturated sand (JOURNAL)
Production of nanomaterials (NMs) is expected to arise continuously, yet their transformation, transport, release mechanisms, and interactions with contaminants under environmental conditions remain poorly understood. Few studies have investigated the effects of contaminants on f...
Chlorinated Cyanurates: Review of Water Chemistry and Associated Drinking Water Implications (JOURNAL)
Since 1958, cyanuric acid and two chlorinated cyanurates, commonly referred to as dichlor (anhydrous sodium dichloroisocyanurate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate) or trichlor (trichloroisocyanuric acid), have been added to outdoor swimming pools to stabilize chlorine resi...
Development of polydisperse aerosol generation and measurement procedures for wind tunnel evaluation of size-selective aerosol samplers (JOURNAL)
Accurate development and evaluation of inlets for representatively collecting ambient particulate matter typically involves the use of monodisperse particles in aerosol wind tunnels. However, the resource requirements of using monodisperse aerosols for inlet evaluation creates th...
Evaluating Biodiversity Metric Response to Forecasted Land Use Change in the Northern Rio Grande Basin (JOURNAL)
The effects of future land use change on arid and semi-arid watersheds in the American Southwest have important management implications. Seamless, national-scale land-use-change scenarios for developed land were acquired from the US Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Clim...
A Maieutic Exploration of Nudging Strategies for Regional Climate Applications Using the WRF Model (JOURNAL)
The use of nudging in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to constrain regional climate downscaling simulations is gaining in popularity because it can reduce error and improve consistency with the driving data. While some attention has been paid to whether nudging i...
Evaluation and Intercomparison of Five North American Dry Deposition Algorithms at a Mixed Forest Site (JOURNAL)
To quantify differences between dry deposition algorithms commonly used in North America, five models were selected to calculate dry deposition velocity (Vd) for O3 and SO2 over a temperate mixed forest in southern Ontario, Canada, where a 5‐year flux database had previousl...
Observations of sesquiterpenes and their oxidation products in central Amazonia during the wet and dry seasons (JOURNAL)
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the Amazon forest region represent the largest source of organic carbon emissions to the atmosphere globally. These BVOC emissions dominantly consist of volatile and intermediate-volatility terpenoid compounds that undergo chemical...
Exposure to human-associated chemical markers of fecal contamination and self-reported illness among swimmers at recreational beaches (JOURNAL)
Abstract Anthropogenic chemicals have been proposed as potential markers of human fecal contamination in recreational water. However, to date, there are no published studies describing their relationships with illness risks. Using a cohort of swimmers at seven U.S. beaches, we e...
Adding to the Toolbox for Tidal-Inundation Mapping in Estuarine Areas (JOURNAL)
In estuaries, land-surface and tidal elevation conspire to influence the amount of salt-water inundation in a specific location, ultimately affecting the distribution of estuary vegetation. Plants vary in their tolerances to salinity and inundation. Understanding even small chang...
Human biomarker interpretation: the importance of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and their calculations based on mixed models, ANOVA, and variance estimates (JOURNAL)
Human biomonitoring is the foundation of environmental toxicology, community public health evaluation, pre-­‐clinical health effects assessments, pharmacological drug development and testing, and medical diagnostics. Within this framework, the intra-­‐class co...
Long-term evaluation of air sensor technology under ambient conditions in Denver, Colorado (JOURNAL)
Air pollution sensors are quickly proliferating for use in a wide variety of applications, with a low price point that supports use in high-density networks, citizen science, and individual consumer use. This emerging technology motivates the assessment under real-world condition...
Additional Benefits of Federal Air-Quality Rules: Model Estimates of Controllable Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol (JOURNAL)
Atmospheric models that accurately describe the fate and transport of trace species for the right reasons aid in the development of effective air-quality management strategies that safeguard human health. Controllable emissions facilitate the formation of biogenic secondary organ...
Human health impact of non-potable reuse of distributed wastewater and greywater treated by membrane bioreactors (Microbial Risk Analysis) (JOURNAL)
We assessed the annual probability of infection resulting from non-potable exposures to distributed greywater and domestic wastewater treated by an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by chlorination. A probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment was conducted for...
Standardization of the collection of exhaled breath condensate and exhaled breath aerosol using a feedback regulated sampling device (JOURNAL)
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and associated exhaled breath aerosols (EBA) are valuable non-invasive biological media used for the quantification of biomarkers. EBC contains exhaled water vapor, soluble gas-phase (polar) organic compounds, ionic species, plus other species inc...