Office of Research and Development Publications

Records 1 to 25 of 2883 Journals from ORD published between 02/19/2014 and 02/19/2019

Controlling biogenic particle mass with NOx and SOx: A Valentine to the Clean Air Act (JOURNAL)
Models that accurately predict atmospheric composition and correctly respond to tested policy scenarios aid air quality managers in the development of effective strategies to protect human health. Controllable emissions from human activity interact with natural emissions from pla...
Spatial distribution of smelter emission heavy metals on farmland soil (JOURNAL)
This work was conducted to explore heavy metal pollution in soils in an area near lead smelters in Jiyuan City, which is one of the main lead production areas in China. Altogether, 88 topsoil samples (0–20 cm) were collected from farmlands near the Yuguang lead smelting fac...
Influence of phosphate amendment and zinc foliar application on heavy metal accumulation in wheat and on soil extractability impacted by a lead-smelter near Jiyuan, China (JOURNAL)
Higher concentrations of Pb and Cd in wheat grains harvested in several lead-smelting-polluted areas in northern China have been reported. This field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphate amendment and Zn foliar application on the accumulation of Pb and ...
Methodological factors influencing inhalation bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s in PM2.5 using simulated lung fluid (JOURNAL)
In this study, methodological factors influencing the dissolution of metal(loid)s in simulated lung fluid (SLF) was assessed in order to develop a standardised method for the assessment of inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5. To achieve this aim, the effects of solid to liquid (...
Arsenic Speciation of Contaminated Soils/Solid Wastes and Relative Oral Bioavailability in Swine and Mice (JOURNAL)
Arsenic (As) is one of the most widespread, toxic elements in the environment, and human activities have resulted in a large number of contaminated areas. However abundant, the potential of As toxicity from exposure to contaminated soils is limited to the fraction that will disso...
Drainage Area Characterization for Evaluating Green Infrastructure using the Storm Water Management Model (JOURNAL)
Urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality are strongly dependent upon catchment properties. Models are used to simulate the runoff characteristics, but the output from a stormwater management model is dependent on how the catchment area is subdivided and represented as spatial...
Genome-enabled insights into the ecophysiology of the comammox bacterium Ca. Nitrospira nitrosa (JOURNAL)
The recently discovered comammox bacteria have the potential to completely oxidize ammonia to nitrate. These microorganisms are part of the Nitrospira genus and are present in a variety of environments, including Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) systems. However, the physiologic...
Pilot-Scale Application of Shotblast Dust for Phosphorus Removal (JOURNAL)
Phosphorus contamination is a global issue, and cost-effective remediation is sought for removing phosphorus from water. We applied a novel use of waste material called shotblast dust in a pilot-scale reactor to remove phosphorus from water. Results indicate that shotblast dust w...
Source strength functions from long-term monitoring data and spatially distributed mass discharge measurements (JOURNAL)
Source strength functions (SSF), defined as contaminant mass discharge or flux-averaged concentration from dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones as a function of time, provide a quantitative model of DNAPL source-zone behavior. Such information is useful for making ...
Spatial Patterns of Pharmaceuticals and Wastewater Tracers in the Hudson River Estuary (JOURNAL)
The widespread use of pharmaceuticals by human populations results in their sustained discharge to surface waters via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, 16 highly prescribed pharmaceuticals were quantified along a 250 km transect of the Hudson River Estuary and N...
Review: membrane materials for the removal of water from industrial solvents by pervaporation and vapor permeation (JOURNAL)
Organic solvents are widely used in a variety of industrial sectors. Reclaiming and reusing the solvents may be the most economically and environmentally beneficial option for managing spent solvents. Purifying the solvents to meet reuse specifications can be challenging. For hyd...
Evaluation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield From Ridge Watersheds Leading to Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model (JOURNAL)
Increased sediment loading to reservoirs and, ultimately, to Guánica Bay and reef areas is a significant concern in Puerto Rico. Sediment deposition has significantly reduced storage capacity of reservoirs, and sediment-attached contaminants can stress corals and negativel...
Inactivation of bacterial biothreat agents in water, a review (JOURNAL)
Journal article
Evaluating the Ecosystem Services and Benefits of Wetland Restoration by Use of the Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach (JOURNAL)
Wetlands in urban and urbanizing areas are often smaller, more degraded, and subject to more stressors than those in undeveloped locations. Their restored level of functioning may never equal that of a site in an undisturbed landscape. Yet, the social benefits from restoring thes...
Adsorption of Malathion onto Copper and Iron Surfaces Relevant to Water Infrastructure (JOURNAL)
Journal Article
Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and cement-mortar drinking water infrastructure in a model system using disinfectants (JOURNAL)
Journal Article
How the distribution of anthropogenic nitrogen has changed in Narragansett Bay (RI, USA) following major reductions in nutrient loads. (JOURNAL)
Over the past decade, nitrogen (N) loads to Narragansett Bay have decreased by more than 50%. These reductions were, in large part, the direct result of multiple wastewater treatment facility upgrades to tertiary treatment, a process which employs N removal. Here, we document eco...
Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5L Turbo Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines (JOURNAL)
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas standards, and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civ...
Analysis of Metallic and Metal Oxide Nanomaterial Environmental Emissions (JOURNAL)
The current study presents evidence on metallic and metal oxide engineered nanomaterial (ENM) emissions into the environment and an analytic perspective of the outcomes of evaluated studies with respect to different individual end points along the lifecycle trajectory. The key fi...
The Effects of Metallic Engineered Nanoparticles Upon Plant Systems: An Analytic Examination of Scientific Evidence (JOURNAL)
Recent evidence for the effects of metallic engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on plants and plant systems was examined together with its implications for other constituents of the Society-Environment-Economy (SEE) system. In this study, we were particularly interested to determine...
Penumbra: A spatially distributed, mechanistic model for simulating ground-level incident solar energy across heterogeneous landscapes (JOURNAL)
Landscape solar energy is a significant environmental driver, yet it remains complicated to model well. Several solar radiation models simplify the complexity of light by estimating it at discrete point locations or by averaging values over larger areas. These modeling approaches...
Towards Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Untargeted Metabolomics Studies (JOURNAL)
We describe here the agreed upon first development steps and priority objectives of a community engagement effort to address current challenges in quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) in untargeted metabolomic studies. Metabolites have many important biological roles (...
Chlorine and monochloramine disinfection of Legionella pneumophila colonizing copper and PVC drinking water biofilms (JOURNAL)
Building water systems (BWSs) promote the regrowth and survival of opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila, especially within biofilms (BFs), where most drinking water (DW) microbes reside. However, compared to their planktonic (PL) form, disinfection efficacy fo...
Comparison of Mold Populations in Water-Damaged Homes in Australia and the United States (JOURNAL)
The goal of this case study was to examine whether the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) scale created for United States (U.S.) homes was applicable in the assessment of mold contamination for Australian homes. Settled-dust samples were collected in southeastern Aust...
Actively Heated High-Resolution Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Quantify Flow Dynamics in Zones of Strong Groundwater Upwelling (JOURNAL)
Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduct...