Science Inventory

Records 1 to 25 of 3112 Journals published between 08/21/2013 and 08/21/2018

Spatial and temporal dynamics of a freshwater eukaryotic plankton community revealed via 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding (JOURNAL)
DNA metabarcoding is a sophisticated molecular tool that can enhance biological surveys of freshwater plankton communities by providing broader taxonomic coverage and, for certain groups, higher taxonomic resolution compared to morphological methods. We conducted 18S rRNA gene me...
Comparative, collaborative, and integrative risk governance for emerging technologies (JOURNAL)
Various emerging technologies challenge existing governance processes to identify, assess, and manage risk. Though the existing risk-based paradigm has been essential for assessment of many chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear technologies, a complementary approach may...
Street-level emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the wastewater collection system in Cincinnati, Ohio (JOURNAL)
Recent studies have indicated that urban streets can be hotspots for emissions of methane (CH4) from leaky natural gas lines, particularly in cities with older natural gas distribution systems. We assessed the source of CH4 emissions from 104 manholes and sewer grates in Cincinna...
Through the Looking Glass: In Vitro Models for Inhalation Toxicology and Inter-individual Variability in the Airway (JOURNAL)
With 7 million deaths reported annually from air pollution alone, it is evident that adverse effects of inhaled toxicant exposures remain a major public health concern in the 21st century. Assessment and characterization of the impacts of air pollutants on human health stems fro...
Indices of iron homeostasis correlate with airway obstructions in an NHANES III cohort (JOURNAL)
Cigarette smoking results in the accumulation of iron both systemically and locally, in the lung thereby causing imbalance in iron homeostasis. This disruption in iron homeostasis can be associated with oxidative stress and consequent tissue injury. Therefore, in this study, we t...
Acute inhalation of ozone induces DNA methylation of apelin in lungs of Long-Evans rats. (JOURNAL)
Apelin has cardiopulmonary protective properties that promote vasodilation and maintenance of the endothelial barrier. While reductions in apelin have been identified as a contributor to various lung diseases, including pulmonary edema, its role in the effect of air pollutants ha...
Global Distribution of Human-Associated Fecal Genetic Markers in Reference Samples from Six Continents (JOURNAL)
Numerous bacterial genetic markers are available for the molecular detection of human sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, widespread application is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding geographical stability, limiting implementation to a small number...
Gender and Racial/Ethnic Disparities: Cumulative Screening of Health Risk Indicators in 20-50 Year Olds in the United States (JOURNAL)
This study explored potential gender and racial/ethnic disparities in overall health risk related to 24 health risk indicators selected across six domains: socioeconomic, health status and health care, lifestyle, nutritional, clinical, and environmental. Using the 2003-2006 Nat...
A New Cell Culture Exposure System (CCES) for Studying the Toxicity of Volatile Chemicals at the Air-Liquid Interface (JOURNAL)
A cell culture exposure system (CCES) was developed to expose cells established at an air-liquid interface (ALI) to volatile chemicals. We characterized the CCES by exposing indigo dye-impregnated filter inserts inside culture wells to 125 ppb ozone (O3) for 1 h at flow rates of ...
ERK1/2 and p38 regulate inter-individual variability in ozone-mediated IL-8 gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (JOURNAL)
Inter-individual variability is observed in all biological responses; however this variability is difficult to model and its underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. This issue currently impedes understanding the health effects of the air pollutant ozone. Ozone produc...
Non‐animal assessment of skin sensitization hazard: Is an integrated testing strategy needed, and if so what should be integrated? (JOURNAL)
There is an expectation that to meet regulatory requirements, and avoid or minimise animal testing, integrated testing and assessment approaches (IATA) will be needed that rely on assays representing key events (KEs) in the adverse outcome pathway (AOP). Three non-animal assays h...
IMAGING APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS OF TOXICOLOGICAL OXIDATIVE STRESS USING GENETICALLY ENCODED FLUOROGENIC SENSORS (JOURNAL)
Live-cell imaging using genetically encoded fluorogenic reporters of the intracellular glutathione redox potential and hydrogen peroxide is an experimental approach that offers unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, sensitivity, and specificity while avoiding many of the shortco...
Building a Developmental Toxicity Ontology (JOURNAL)
This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity.
A resilience framework for chronic exposures: water quality and ecosystem services in coastal social-ecological systems. (JOURNAL)
Water quality degradation is a chronic problem which influences the resilience of a social-ecological system differently than acute disturbances, such as disease or storms. Recognizing this, we developed a tailored resilience framework that applies ecosystem service concepts to c...
Novel application of normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI) to mine biomedical literature for gene sets associated with disease: Use case in breast carcinogenesis (JOURNAL)
Advances in technology within biomedical sciences have led to an inundation of data across many fields, raising new challenges in how best to integrate and analyze these resources. For example, rapid chemical screening programs like the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCas...
NMReDATA, a standard to report the NMR assignment and parameters of organic compounds (JOURNAL)
Even though NMR has found countless applications in the field of small molecule characterization, there is no standard file for the NMR data relevant to structure characterization of small molecules. A file format was developed to associate the NMR parameters extracted from 1D an...
Advancing Alternatives Analysis: The Role of Predictive Toxicology in Selecting Safer Chemical Products and Processes (JOURNAL)
Chemical Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in chemical regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for existing products or processes that use hazardous chemicals. This approach requires toxicologic...
Functional Evaluation of Three Manure-Borne Indicator Bacteria Release Models with Multiyear Field Experiment Data (JOURNAL)
Modeling the fate and transport of Escherichia coli is of substantial interest because of how this organism serves as an indicator of fecal contamination in microbial water quality assessment. The efficacy of models used to assess the export of E. coli from agricultural fields is...
Air Quality Sensors and Data Adjustment Algorithms: When Is It No Longer a Measurement? (JOURNAL)
There currently are a wide variety of approaches emerging to adjust air sensor data, either on the device or more commonly, on a manufacturer's server or cloud. The goal of these adjustments are to correct for measurement artifacts and produce more accurate values. However, most ...
Characterizing the Extent of Spatially Integrated Floodplain and Wetland Systems in the White River, Indiana, USA (JOURNAL)
Floodplain delineation may inform protection of wetland systems under local, state, or federal laws. Nationally available Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs, “100‐year floodplain” maps) focus on urban areas and higher‐orde...
The Path Towards Healthier Societies, Environments and Economies: A Broader Perspective for Sustainable Engineered Nanomaterials (JOURNAL)
Economic value is no longer adequate by itself as a proxy for the value-added benefits (VAB) assumed to be generated by emerging technologies such as engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This study was conducted to explore the potential to establish an integrated sociotechnical frame...
LCA capability roadmap--product system model description and revision (JOURNAL)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners face many challenges in their efforts to describe, share, review, and revise their product system models, and to reproduce the models and results of others. Current life cycle inventory modeling techniques have weaknesses in the areas of ...
Wildland Fire Smoke and Human Health (JOURNAL)
The natural cycle of landscape fire maintains the ecological health of the land, yet adverse health effects associated with exposure to emissions from wildfire produce public health and clinical challenges. Systematic reviews conclude that a positive association exists between ex...
Ecological differences influence the thermal sensitivity of swimming performance of two co-occurring mysid shrimp species with climate change implications (JOURNAL)
Temperature strongly affects performance in ectotherms. As ocean warming continues, performance of marine species will be impacted. Many studies have focused on how warming will impact physiology, life history, and behavior, but few studies have investigated how ecological and be...
Controlling biogenic particle mass with NOx and SOx: A Valentine to the Clean Air Act (JOURNAL)
Models that accurately predict atmospheric composition and correctly respond to tested policy scenarios aid air quality managers in the development of effective strategies to protect human health. Controllable emissions from human activity interact with natural emissions from pla...