Related Topics: Homeland Security Research

Homeland Security Research Products in the Science Inventory

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  • Keyword = 'homeland security’ AND decontamination AND ((studies OR study) OR (method OR methods) OR (technology AND technologies) OR (system OR systems)) NOT (presentation OR poster).
Records 1 to 25 of 461

2021
Decontamination of soil contaminated at the surface with Bacillus anthracis spores using dry thermal treatment
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 15, 2021]
In the event of a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores, soils and other outdoor materials may become contaminated with the biological agent. A study was conducted to assess the in-situ remediation of soil using a dry thermal treatment approach to inactivate a B. anthrac...
Emergency Response to Stormwater Contamination: A Framework for Containment and Treatment
(JOURNAL) [Published : Feb 15, 2021]
This paper presents a Stormwater Emergency Response Framework (SERF) for use in the containment and treatment of stormwater runoff following a hazardous material release. The framework consists of four high level process steps and a decision tree. These resources are intended to ...
Formaldehyde Vapor Characteristics in Varied Decontamination Environments
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 19, 2021]
Introduction. This effort investigated formaldehyde vapor characteristics under various environmental conditions by the analyses of air samples collected over a time-course. This knowledge will help responders achieve desired formaldehyde exposure parameters for decontamination ...
Literature Search and Review for Sampling, Analysis, and Decontamination of Biological Warfare Agent-Contaminated Maritime Vessels
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Feb 25, 2021]
This report summarizes the current scientific literature on remediation-related activities associated with US Coast Guard vessels and other assets. It also provides descriptions of research gaps and needs for consideration by US Coast Guard and other federal agencies to improve o...
Persistence of Surrogate Radionuclides on Wastewater Collection System Infrastructure
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Mar 31, 2021]
EPA Report; Results for cesium and cobalt showed that metal adhesion to conditioned infrastructure materials was undetectable. Strontium was detected on concrete coupons at levels above the method detection limit. However, further analyses of the concrete suggested that stront...
Review of Phytoremediation Technologies for Radiological Contamination
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : May 25, 2021]
Phytoremediation is an integrated approach applied to the cleanup of contaminated soils that combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology, offering a viable method of stabilizing and removing contamination with significantly less cost than a...
2020
Analysis of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus anthracis Indoors
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Oct 30, 2020]
The primary objectives of this project research effort were to analyze the potential for application of an aggressive air sampling (AAS) technique for measurement of spores resulting from a dissemination of a biological agent, Bacillus anthracis (Ba), in an indoor environment and...
Characterizing cesium sorption in freshwater settings using fluvial sediments and characteristic water chemistries
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 01, 2020]
Cesium-137 (Cs-137) is a persistent contaminant that poses a significant risk to human health and the environment. Understanding the fate and transport of Cs-137 following a contamination incident is necessary for effective containment and remediation. In this study, we performed...
Comparison of surface sampling methods for an extended duration outdoor biological contamination study
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jun 24, 2020]
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, is a dangerous pathogen to humans and has a history as a bioterrorism agent. While sampling methods have been developed and evaluated for characterizing and clearing contaminated indoor sites, the performance of these sampling ...
Compatibility of Electronic Equipment and Other Materials with Peracetic Acid Fog and Low Concentration Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Aug 14, 2020]
The purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of PAA fog and LCHPV on representative indoor materials and electronic equipment. The fogging of PAA solution caused visually observed appearance changes (e.g., discoloration, oxidation, residue) on the copper, low-carbon ste...
Decontamination of Drinking Water Distribution System Infrastructure after Contamination with Untreated Source Water
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : May 31, 2020]
This report summarizes the results of infrastructure decontamination experiments performed at the WSTB. These experiments focused on simulating contamination of drinking water distribution pipes with untreated source water due to a treatment failure at a water treatment facility...
Detain H20 Detention Basin Retrofit Device
(SUMMARY) [Published : May 20, 2020]
Bench-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale tests were performed to evaluate the function of two innovative outfall retrofit devices that can be quickly deployed to control stormwater contamination events within existing detention basin structures. The devices were designed to impr...
Dispersion Modeling Systems Relevant to Homeland Security Preparedness and Response
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Oct 21, 2020]
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is one tool that can be used for effective emergency preparation or response from hazardous chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNe) releases, especially in urban areas where population densities are high and wind flow bec...
EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERSISTENCE AND INACTIVATION OF MS2 BACTERIOPHAGE AND THE PRESUMED EBOLA VIRUS SURROGATE PHI6 USING LOW CONCENTRATION HYDROGEN PEROXIDE VAPOR
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 17, 2020]
The phages were inoculated onto six material types (both porous and nonporous), with and without the presence of human whole blood. The inoculated materials were then exposed to either a high or low concentration of HPV, and the phages were recovered from the materials at several...
EVALUATION OF ALTERED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AS A DECONTAMINATION APPROACH FOR NONSPORE-FORMING BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
(JOURNAL) [Published : Apr 01, 2020]
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of altered environmental conditions on the persistence of Francisella tularensis bacteria and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, on two material types. Results from this study provide information for inactivation of non-spo...
Early detection of viable Francisella tularensis in environmental matrices by culture-based PCR
(JOURNAL) [Published : Mar 25, 2020]
Francisella tularensis is a fastidious, Gram-negative coccobacillus and the causative agent of tularemia. To access viability yet overcome lengthy incubation periods, a culture-based PCR method was used to detect early growth of the lowest possible number of F. tularensis cells....
Fire Hydrant Flushing Treatment Diffusser and Effectiveness of Flushing Hydrants for Contamination Removal
(SUMMARY) [Published : Jul 31, 2020]
Flushing contaminated water out of the distribution system using the existing network of fire hydrants is considered the most probable first action in response to a drinking water system contamination incident. Hydrant Flushing and Chlorination experiments were conducted at the W...
Functional categories of microbial toxicity resulting from three advanced oxidation process treatments during management and disposal of contaminated water
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jan 20, 2020]
Contaminated waters could contain harmful chemicals, which present management and disposal challenges. This study investigates three The results indicate that AOP pre-treatment can be a viable strategy to facilitate drain disposal of contaminated waters, but that eco-toxicit...
Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus atrophaeus Spores on Surfaces with Ultraviolet Light Produced Via Either Light Emitting Diodes or a Low-Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp
(JOURNAL) [Published : Jul 21, 2020]
Journal article; Aims: To obtain data on the efficacy of two ultraviolet light (UVC) technologies for inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Ames and Bacillus atrophaeus spores on surfaces.
Laboratory results and mathematical modeling of spore surface interactions in storm water runoff
(JOURNAL) [Published : Sep 17, 2020]
Development of numerical models to predict stormwater-mediated transport of pathogenic spores in the environment depends on an understanding of adhesion forces that dictate detachment after rain events. Zeta potential values were measured for Bacillus globgii and Bacillus thuring...
Literature Search and Review for Sampling, Analysis, and Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent - Contaminated Maritime Vessels
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Dec 31, 2020]
The USCG protects and defends more than 100,000 miles of U.S. coastline and inland waterways. To this end, the USCG may be responsible for countering and responding to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction, including biological warfare agents (BWAs) and chemical warfare...
OPTIMIZATION OF A RAPID VIABILITY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RV-PCR) PROTOCOL FOR DETECTION OF FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS IN WATER SAMPLES
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : Mar 18, 2020]
This is a final report for the project on Optimization of a Rapid Viability (RV) PCR Protocol for Detection of Francisella tularensis in water. During a tularemia bioterrorism incident or a natural outbreak, the water system can be contaminated. This pathogen survives for many da...
Personnel Decontamination Line Sprayer Options for Biological Contamination Incident Response
(SUMMARY) [Published : Oct 20, 2020]
Following a bioterrorism event, an incident or unified command would be established, the impacted area would be characterized, and response work zones set up based on the extent of indoor/outdoor contamination. The personnel decontamination (decon) line, established in the contam...
Physical and Chemical Removal Options for Porous/Permeable Materials Contaminated with a Persistent Chemical Warfare Agent XV
(PUBLISHED REPORT) [Published : May 21, 2020]
The results of this research will provide the EPA response community as well as other Federal, State, Tribal and Local agencies on tools to decontaminate porous materials in the indoor environment that are contaminated with CWAs. Report on bench-scale experimental evaluation of p...
Physiological Responses to Multiple Low-Doses of Bacillus anthracis Spores in the Rabbit Model of Inhalation Anthrax
(JOURNAL) [Published : Oct 24, 2020]
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of inhalation anthrax, is one of the most highly studied biological threat agents, yet consensus is still lacking on an appropriate dose-response relationship to describe human health effects from low doses and multiple exposures.