||Section I -- HIV Neuroinvasion: Early Events, Late Manifestations -- HIV Co-receptors: The Brain Perspective -- HIV Infection and the PNS -- HIV Latency and Reactivation: Role in Neuropathogenesis -- HIV Coreceptors and Their Roles in Leukocyte Trafficking During Neuroinflammatory Diseases -- Section II -- Chemokine Proteolytic Processing in HIV Infection: Neurotoxic and Neuroimmune Consequences -- Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in the Brain -- Chemokine Signaling in the Nervous System and Its Role in Development and Neuropathology -- Modulation of Neuronal Cell Cycle Proteins by Chemokine Receptors and Its Role in the Survival of Postmitotic Neurons -- Chemokines and Primary Brain Tumors -- Chemokines as Neuromodulators: Regulation of Glutamatergic Transmission by CXCR4-Mediated Glutamate Release From Astrocytes -- Role of CX3CL1 in Synaptic Activity and Neuroprotection -- Section III -- Interaction Between Opioid and Chemokine Receptors in Immune Cells: Implications for HIV Infection -- Chronic Morphine's Role on Innate Immunity, Bacterial Susceptibility and Implications in Wound Healing -- Opioids, Astroglial Chemokines, Microglial Reactivity, and Neuronal Injury in HIV-1 Encephalitis -- Regulation of Neuronal Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by ?-Opioid Agonists and Its Involvement in NeuroAIDS. Chemokines and their receptors are being recognized as an integral component of the nervous system implicated in fundamental aspects of development and homeostasis, such as neurotransmission, proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal-glial communication. Thus, their involvement in HIV neuropathology goes far beyond the co-receptors role and entails complex interactions of the chemokine system with different cell types and other regulators of neuronal function. The major goal of this volume is to review these topics in order to highlight alterations of chemokine physiology that may contribute to neuroAIDS and other neuropathologies. This book will be of interest to neuroscientists, neurologists, virologists, pharmacologists, and students in these fields. About the Editor: Olimpia Meucci, MD, PhD is a Professor of Pharmacology and Physiology & Microbiology and Immunology at Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia, PA. Since her seminal discovery about the regulation of neuronal signaling by chemokines, her research has primarily focused on the physio-pathological roles of this important class of neuroimmune modulators in the central nervous system and their involvement in neuroAIDS. These studies have significantly contributed to current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV-related neuropathology including the interaction of the chemokine system with drug of abuse, namely opiates, which continues to be a major area of investigation in the Meucci lab.