||Machine generated contents note: pt. I Basic Concepts of GIS -- ch. 1 Some Concepts That Underpin GIS -- You Ask: "What Is GIS About?" -- And So You Ask Again: "What Is GIS About?" -- Exercise 1-1 (Project)Finding a Geographic Site by Manual Means -- More of What GIS Is About -- Next Steps: Seemingly Independent Things You Need To Know -- Determining Where Something Is: Coordinate Systems -- Determining Where Something Is: Latitude and Longitude -- Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, Geographic Projections, and Scale -- Projected Coordinate Systems -- Geographic vs. Projected Coordinates: A Comparison -- Two Projected Coordinate Systems: UTM and State Plane -- Physical Dimensionality -- Global Positioning Systems -- Remote Sensing -- Relational Databases -- Searching (and Indexing) in General -- Another Definition of GIS -- Computer Software: In General -- Step-By-Step -- Exercise 1-2 (Project)Developing a Fast Facts File for the Information You Learn. Contents note continued: Understanding the File Structure for the Exercises -- Exercise 1-3 (Minor Project)Getting Set Up with ArcGIS -- Exercise 1-4 (Project)Looking at the ArcCatalog Program -- Anatomy of the ArcCatalog Window -- Setting Some Options -- The Catalog Tree -- Connecting to a Folder -- The Toolbars and the Status Bar -- An Optional Step -- Exploring Basic GIS Data Storage Models -- Exercise 1-5 (Major Project)Exploring Data with ArcCatalog---Fire Hydrants in a Village -- Copying Data over to Your Personal Folder -- Examining the Table -- Deriving Information from the Table -- Sorting the Records -- Finding Values in a Table -- Identifying Geographic Features and Coordinates -- Looking at GeoGraphics -- A First Look at Metadata -- Using ArcCatalog to Place Data in ArcMap -- Exercise 1-6 (Project)A Look at Some Spatial Data for Finding a Site for the Wildcat Boat Facility -- Using the Area on the Disk for Your Own Work. Contents note continued: Copying Data over to Your Personal IGIS Folder -- Searching for GIS Data -- Exploring Soils -- But Something Is Missing -- Is the Newly Found Data Applicable? -- Making a Personal Geodatabase Feature Class from a Coverage -- Looking at the Landcover Personal Geodatabase Feature Class -- Further Examining the Wildcat Boat Facility Area Data Sets -- Exercise 1-7 (Project)Looking at Wildcat Boat Data with ArcMap -- Seeing the Results of the Join -- Exercise 1-8 (Project)Understanding the ArcGIS Help System -- A Button for Instant Help: What's This? (for ArcGIS Desktop version 10.0 only) -- Getting Instant Help for a Tool or Command (for ArcGIS Desktop version 10.1) -- The Help System and Documentation -- ArcGIS Help across the Internet -- Exercise 1-9 (Dull Stuff)Using ArcCatalog for Mundane Operations -- Exercise 1-10 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- What's Next? -- ch. 2 Characteristics and Examples of Spatial Data. Contents note continued: The Original Form of Spatial Data: Maps -- Moving Spatial Data from Maps to Computers: Forces for Change -- Spatial Data -- Limiting the Scope -- Spatial Data for Decision Making -- Sets of Spatial Data: The Database -- Spatial Databases: Inherent Difficulties -- Information Systems -- Uses for a Geographic Information System -- Step-By-Step -- Exercise 2-1 (Mostly Outside)Appreciating Geographic Space and Spatial Data -- Exercise 2-2 (Setup)ArcMap Toolbar Examination and Review -- Exercise 2-3 (Major Project)Exploring Different Types of Geographic Data -- The Basic Difference between ArcCatalog and ArcMap -- Exploring Data from the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) -- Preliminaries -- Seeing the GPS File in ArcMap -- Looking at the GPS Track in the Context of a Variety of GIS Data -- A Potpourri of Types of Geographic Data -- Displaying Layers from Vector-Based Datasets -- Housekeeping: Saving and Restoring a Map. Contents note continued: Selecting: Both Map Data and Attribute Data -- Using the Measure Tool and the Identify Tool -- County Boundaries and Polygons -- Tiger/Line Files -- The Table of Display vs. Source vs. Selection -- Exercise 2-4 (Major Project)A Look at Raster Data -- Digital Raster Graphics and Cell-Based Files -- A Look (Optional) at How DRG Color Values Are Put Together -- Experimenting with Different Ways of Seeing Data -- Digital Orthophotos -- More Tiger/Line Files -- Another Tie between Attributes and Geographies -- More Housekeeping: Shutting Down and Restarting ArcMap -- Digital Elevation Model Files -- Comparing the DEM and the DRG -- Contour Line Files -- Exercise 2-5 (Project)Triangulated Irregular Networks -- TINs are Three-Dimensional Datasets -- Elevation Based on Massive Sets of Data: The Esri Terrain -- Exercise 2-6 (Project)Geodatasets of Soils, Rocks, and Land Cover -- The Summarizing Procedure -- Some Geological Data -- Rasters of Land Cover Data. Contents note continued: You Are Not Alone (Assuming you have an Internet connection) -- Next Steps on Your Own -- Exercise 2-7 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- The Next Chapter -- ch. 3 Products of a GIS: Maps and Other Information -- GIS and Cartography---Compatibility? -- Products of a Geographic Information System -- Overall Requirements for Utility -- Classification of GIS Products -- Documenting Products -- Thoughts on Different Types of Products -- Don't Ignore Character-Based Information -- Don't Hesitate to Sort Information -- Consider Hard Copy -- Consider Balance in Product Content -- Elements of Product Design -- Units, Projection, and Scale -- Thoughts on Resolution and Scale -- Making Sure There Is a Base Map -- Measure of Quality Assurance -- The Decision Maker--Product Interface -- In Summary -- Step-By-Step -- The Data View and the Layout View -- Exercise 3-1 (Warm-Up)Templates. Contents note continued: Exercise 3-2 (Project)Templates That Contain Data -- Controlling Your View of the Map: Zooming -- Understanding the Panning and Other Controls -- Adding Other Map Elements -- Exercise 3-3 (Major Project)Data Frames -- Adding Data to Data Frames -- A Summary of the Graphic Indicators -- Tinkering with the Map---Scale Bars -- Legends -- Exercise 3-4 (Mini Project)Looking at the Plethora of Mapmaking Tools and Options -- Exercise 3-5 (Major Project)Making a Map of the Wildcat Boat Datasets -- Exercise 3-6 (Major Project)Publishing Maps on the Internet -- Exercise 3-7 (Major Project)Enhancing Communication: Styles, Layer Files, Layer Packages, Reports, Charts, and Graphics -- Layer Files -- Layer Packages -- Styles -- Adding and Using a Style -- Reports -- Charts and Graphs -- Graphics -- Making Graphics out of Geographic Features -- Exercise 3-8 Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- ch. 4 Structures for Storing Geographic Data. Contents note continued: Why Is Spatial Data Analysis So Hard? -- How the Computer Aids Analyzing Spatial Data -- Complexity of Spatial Data -- Structures for Spatial Data -- Storage Paradigms for Areal Data -- Fundamental Bases of Geographic Data Models -- The Raster Data Model -- Vector Data Model -- A Multiplicity of "Storadigms" -- Vector-Based Geographic Datasets---Logical Construction -- Zero-Dimensional Entities in a Two-Dimensional Field: Points -- One-Dimensional Entities in a Two-Dimensional Field: Lines -- Two-Dimensional Entities in a Two-Dimensional Field: Polygons -- Three-Dimensional Entities in a Three-Dimensional Field: Triangles and Multipatches -- Specific Esri Spatial Vector Data Storage Mechanisms -- The Geodatabase Data Structure -- Geodatabase Software -- Polygons within Polygons---Perimeter and Area Calculations -- Geodatabases---Layout in the Computer -- Geodatabases---Logical Construction -- Geodatabases---Feature Shape. Contents note continued: Nested Polygons in Geodatabases -- Geodatabases and Attributes -- Objects---First Acquaintance -- The Shapefile Data Structure -- Shapefiles---Layout in the Computer -- Summarizing Vector Dataset Features -- Summary of Logical Structures of Vector-Based GIS Datasets -- Raster-Based Geographic Data Sets---Logical Construction -- Raster-Based Geographic Data Sets---Layout in the Computer -- TINs -- TIN-Based Geographic Data Sets---Layout in the Computer -- Spatial Reference -- Step-By-Step -- Exercise 4-1 (Warm-Up)Meet ArcToolbox -- Exercise 4-2 (Warm-Up)A Look at Some Trivial Personal Geodatabase Feature Classes -- More Help -- Exercise 4-3 (Minor Project)Adding Tools and Toolboxes to your Toolset -- Exercise 4-4 (Minor Project)Making a Personal Geodatabase Feature Class Named TextToFeature -- Specification of your Input Text File for the "Create Features from Text File" Tool -- Labeling Features -- Making Polygons from Lines. Contents note continued: Areas and Perimeters Examined -- Labeling Features with Selected Attributes -- Exercise 4-5 (Quick Quiz)Areas and Perimeters -- Exercise 4-6 (Project)Making a File Geodatabase Feature Class for Foozit_Court -- Exercise 4-7 (Exploration)Understanding Some Things That Don't Look Right -- Computers and Inexact Computation -- Exercise 4-8 (Project)Geodatabase Topology -- Creating a New Topology -- Specifying Which Feature Moves When Features Are Adjusted: Rank -- Topology Rules -- Validating Topology -- A Warning: Changes Made through Topology Are Permanent -- Exercise 4-9 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- ch. 5 Geographic and Attribute Data: Selection, Input, and Editing -- Concerns about Finding and Collecting Data -- Looking for Data on the Internet -- Steps in Developing the Database -- GPS and GIS -- Anatomy of the Acronym: GPS -- What Time Is It? -- Step-By-Step. Contents note continued: Exercise 5-1 (Warm-Up)Looking at Areal Representations of the Real World -- Looking at Reference Systems -- Looking at Coordinate Systems -- Using the Reference System to Discover the Boundary Coordinates of a State Plane Zone -- Primary Lesson -- Exercise 5-2 (Project)Look at Geographic Data on the web -- Exercise 5-3 (Project)Digitizing and Transforming -- A Plan for Digitizing and Transforming -- Getting Started -- Loading an Image File as a Layer in ArcMap -- Loading the New, Blank Shapefile into ArcMap -- Adding Line Features to a Shapefile by Using the Editing Facility in ArcMap -- Converting a Shapefile to a Geodatabse Feature Class and Giving It Real-World Coordinates -- Converting the Shapefile to a Geodatabase Feature Class -- Moving the Foozit Court Feature Class into the Real World -- Exercise 5-4 (Project)Digitizing Directly into a Real-World Coordinate System in a Geodatabase -- Preliminaries. Contents note continued: Making the Feature Class That Will Be the Object of the Digitization -- Georeferencing -- Moving the Sketch to UTM Zone 2 -- Digitizing the Line Boundaries of the Islands -- Making Polygons of the Digitized Lines -- Making Multipart Polygons -- Five islands divided by county and agency -- Merging Multipart Polygons -- Exercise 5-5 (Warm-Up)Digitizing Geodatabase Polygons and Exploring Topology -- Making Copies of the Feature Class -- Using "Clip" to Remove Overlaps from the Feature Class -- Using Topology to Remove Overlaps from the Feature Class -- Exercise 5-6 (Project)Learning Some Editor Fundamentals -- The Concept of the Edit Sketch -- Making Sketches with Snapping -- Experimenting with Editing Polygons -- Experimenting with Editor's Union -- Experimenting with the Editor's Intersect -- Experimenting with the Editor's Buffer Capabilities -- Using Undo, Redo, Copy, and Cut -- Working with Line Editing Again. Contents note continued: Exercise 5-7 (Follow-On)Adding the Sixth Island -- Creating a 3-D Feature -- Exercise 5-8 (Project)Obtaining Field Data and Joining Tables -- Organization -- Environment and Measurement (Spatial Data) -- Measurements (Non-spatial Data) -- Recording Data -- Team Assignments -- Undertaking the Data Entry Process -- Making a Table That Contains the Coordinate Data -- Making a Table That Contains the Student Data -- Populating the Student_Info Table with Data -- Joining the Two Tables to Make a Single Table -- Seeing the Results of the Join -- Exercise 5-9 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- pt. II Spatial Analysis and Synthesis with GIS -- ch. 6 Analysis of GIS Data by Simple Examination -- Information -- Computer Hardware---What a Computer Does -- Continuous and Discrete Phenomena -- Some Implications of Discrete Representation for GIS -- Scientific Notation, Numerical Significance, Accuracy, and Precision. Contents note continued: Precision vs. Accuracy -- Basic Statistics -- Putting Values into Classes -- Measurement Scales -- Step-By-Step -- Exercise 6-1 (Project)Reviewing and Learning More of ArcMap -- Examining the Toolbars -- Pointing at Records -- Two Windows Are Available for Selecting -- Selecting Records (and, Thereby, Features) -- Looking at the Other Capabilities of the Options Menu -- Selecting Features (and, Thereby, Records) -- Quick Selection of Features -- Selecting by Location -- Reviewing and Understanding Actions on the Table of -- Layers and the Data Frames -- Changing Layer Properties -- Exercise 6-2 (Project)Categorization and Symbolization -- Thinking about Maps Again -- Classification (or Categorization) and Symbolization -- User Selection of Classes -- A More Careful Look at Equal Intervals -- Defined Interval -- Quantiles -- Standard Deviation -- Natural Breaks -- Normalization -- Using Charts and Graphs -- Making a Layout. Contents note continued: Exercise 6-3 (Short Project)Comparing Data Sets: Medically Underserved Areas (MUAs) and Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) -- Exercise 6-4 (Major Project)Combining Demographic and Geographic Data -- Obtaining Data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census -- Converting the Census Data Spreadsheet to dBASEIV Format -- Using TIGER-Based Street and Block Shapefiles from Esri -- Assessing What We Have and What We Need to Solve the Problem -- Converting the Relevant Files to Cartesian Coordinates -- Finally -- Exercise 6-5 Determining Proximity of Points to Lines and Other Points -- Exercise 6-6 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- ch. 7 Creating Spatial Feature Classes Based on Proximity, Overlay, and Attributes -- Generating Features Based on Proximity: Buffering -- Generating Features by Overlaying -- Overlaying with Line and Point Feature Classes -- Spatial Joins in General. Contents note continued: Deriving Feature Classes by Selecting Attributes: Extraction -- Step-By-Step -- Exercise 7-1 (Warm-Up)Making Trivial Buffers around a Trivial Feature Class -- Exercise 7-2 (Project)Exploring Feature Class Buffers with the Wildcat Boat Data -- Using ArcToolbox to Make Buffer Zones around the Roads -- Variable-Width Buffers -- Exercise 7-3 (Project)Manipulate Polygon Feature Classes with Union and Extract -- Make a New Feature Class from a Subset of Polygons: Extract -- More Complex Queries---And's and Or's -- Other Polygon Spatial Joins: Intersect and Identity -- Exercise 7-4 (Project)Use Overlay and Extract with Trivial Point and Line Feature Classes -- Exercise 7-5 (Project) -- Using Buffer and Overlay Together with Geodatabases -- The Getrich Saga -- Deriving Information by Combining Tables -- Overlaying the Feature Classes -- Exercise 7-6 (Project)Building a Model of the Getrich Project Solution -- Create a Python Script from the Gold Model. Contents note continued: Modify the Python Script from the Gold Model -- Execute the Python Script -- Exercise 7-7 (Minor Project)Making Buffers for Solving the Wildcat Boat Problem -- Exercise 7-8 (Project)Finding a Site for the Wildcat Boat Facility -- Exercise 7-9 (Project, Optional)Solving a Revised Wildcat Boat Problem -- Understanding Dissolve -- Making New Sites that Including the COST_HA Field -- Considering the Site Eccentricity Criterion -- Making a Model of the Wildcat Boat Solution -- Exercise 7-11 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- ch. 8 Spatial Analysis Based on Raster Data Processing -- A Really Different Processing Paradigm -- Facts about Rasters -- Coordinate Space -- Rasters with Integer Cell Values -- Rasters with Floating-Point Values -- What Is Raster Storage and Processing Good For? -- Rasters and Features -- Rasters: Input, Computation, and Output -- Where Raster Processing Shines: Cost Incurred Traveling over a Distance. Contents note continued: Proximity Calculation with Rasters -- Human Activity, Cost, and Distance -- Euclidean Distances on the Raster -- Euclidean Distance and the Spatial Analyst -- Proving Pythagoras Right -- Finding the Closest of Multiple Source Cells -- Excluding Distances beyond a Certain Threshold -- Other Factors That Influence Cost -- The Cost Distance Mechanism -- The Cost Distance Calculation -- Path Calculation in Euclidean Distance and Cost Distance -- Understanding How Total Costs Are Calculated -- Getting More Information: Paths and Allocations -- Direction and Allocation Rasters for Euclidean Distance -- Direction and Allocation Rasters for Cost Distance -- A Major Application of Raster Processing: Hydrology -- Basic Surface Hydrology -- Basic Surface Hydrology Concepts -- Calculating Flow Direction -- The Ultimate Destination of Water Is Off the Raster Area -- Flow Accumulation: Drainage Delineation and Rainfall Volume -- Nonuniform Rainfall. Contents note continued: Calculating the Length of a Potential Linear Water Body -- Assigning Identities to Streams -- Vector vs. Raster Representation -- Assigning Orders to Stream Links -- Watersheds and Pour Points -- Step-By-Step -- Exercise 8-1 (Project)Basic Raster Principles and Operations -- The Raster Calculator---Integer Rasters -- Arithmetic Calculation -- Boolean Operations -- Floating-Point Rasters -- Exercise 8-2 (Project)Solving the Original Wildcat Boat Problem with Rasters -- Setting the General and Raster Environment -- Converting Features to Rasters -- Creating Rasters with Linear Features -- Buffering with Spatial Analyst (Maybe) -- Buffering---Plan B -- Reclassifying the Data -- Adding the Rasters with the Raster Calculator -- Converting Zones to Regions to Find Individual Sites -- Exercise 8-3 (Project)Solving a Wildcat Boat Problem with Different Requirements. Contents note continued: Exercise 8-4 (Demonstration)Making Surfaces with IDW, Spline, Trend, Nearest Neighbor, and Kriging -- Points and Density -- Thiessen, Dirichlet, Voronoi (and, of course, Decartes) -- Exercise 8-5 (Project)Rasters: Distance and Proximity -- Making a Raster Showing Straight-Line Distances to a Single Place -- Examining Many Source Cells and the Capping Distance -- Developing a Raster with Cost Distance -- Creating Direction and Allocation Rasters -- Using Cost Distance to Make Direction and Allocation Rasters -- Calculating a Least-Cost Path from "A" to "B" -- Exercise 8-6 (Project)Putting the Tools Together: Find a Site for a Regional Park -- Setting Things Up -- Preparing to Create a Cost Surface -- Building a Cost Surface -- Improving the Understandability of the Map -- Exercise 8-7 (Project)Watershed Analysis -- Examining the Surface with Various Spatial Analyst and 3D Tools -- Determining the Stream Channels -- Calculating Stream Order. Contents note continued: Numbering Each Stream Individually -- Identifying Basins -- Finding Pollution Culprits -- Exercise 8-8 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File -- ch. 9 Other Dimensions, Other Tools, Other Solutions -- Two Different Third Dimensions: The Temporal and the Vertical Spatial -- The Third Spatial Dimension: Overview -- 3-D: 2-D (Spatial) Plus 1-D (Spatial) -- ArcScene -- ArcGlobe -- The Third Spatial Dimension: Step-By-Step -- An (Almost) New Software Package: ArcScene -- Exercise 9-1 (Project)Experimenting with 3-D -- ArcScene -- What's 3-D and What's Not -- Viewing 3-D Data with Animation -- Making a TIN and Other 3-D Representations of Elevation -- Creating DEM files with Kriging -- Creating a Map of Contour Lines -- Two-and-a-Half Dimensions (2.5-D): Calculating Volumes -- Calculating a Volume with ArcGIS -- Other Neat Stuff You Can Do with 3D Analyst: Viewshed and Hillshade -- A Closer Look at ArcGlobe and Adding Data to It. Contents note continued: Making a Terrain -- The Time Dimension: Overview -- 3-D: 2-D (Spatial) Plus 1-D (Temporal) -- The Time Dimension: Step-By-Step -- Exercise 9-2 (Project)Looking at Infrastructure Changes Occurring over Time -- Sliding through Time---Seeing Changes in Features at Intervals -- Address Geocoding: Overview -- A Second Fundamental Way of Defining Location -- Tiger/Line Files -- Precision of the Geographic Coordinates in TIGER Files -- Address Locators -- Address Geocoding: Step-By-Step -- Exercise 9-3 (Project)Experimenting with Addresses and Coordinates -- Finding the Geographic Position of an Address "Manually" -- Making an Address Locator -- Finding the Geographic Position of an Address "Automatically" -- Tiger Files and ZIP Codes -- More to Know---More Information Available -- Analysis of Networks: Overview -- Analysis of Networks: Step-By-Step -- Exercise 9-4 (Project)Experimenting with Routes and Allocations -- Finding the Shortest Route to a Facility. Contents note continued: Allocating Territories to Facilities -- Linear Referencing: Overview -- Linear Referencing: Step-By-Step -- Exercise 9-5 (Project)Experimenting within Linear Features -- Intersecting Route Events -- What's Not Covered Here -- Exercise 9-6 (Review)Checking, Updating, and Organizing Your Fast Facts File. An integrated approach that combines essential GIS background with a practical workbook on applying the principles in ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1 Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGISintegrates a broad introduction to GIS with a software-specific workbook for Esri's ArcGIS. Where most courses make do using two separate texts, one covering GIS and another the software, this book enables students and instructors to use a single text with an integrated approach covering both in one volume with a common vocabulary and instructional style. This revised edition focuses on the latest software updates-ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. In addition to its already successful coverage, the book allows students to experience publishing maps on the Internet through new exercises, and introduces the idea of programming in the language Esri has chosen for applications (i.e., Python). A DVD is packaged with the book, as in prior editions, containing data for working out all of the exercises. This complete, user-friendly coursebook: Is updated for the latest ArcGIS releases-ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1 Introduces the central concepts of GIS and topics needed to understand spatial information analysis Provides a considerable ability to operate important tools in ArcGIS Demonstrates new capabilities of ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1 Provides a basis for the advanced study of GIS and the study of the newly emerging field of GIScience. Introducing Geographic Information Systems with ArcGIS, Third Edition is the ideal guide for undergraduate students taking courses such as Introduction to GIS, Fundamentals of GIS, and Introduction to ArcGIS Desktop. It is also an important guide for professionals looking to update their skills for ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1.