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OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Cadmium contamination of the environment : an assessment of nationwide risks /
Author Delos, Charles G.
CORP Author Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Regulations and Standards.
Publisher Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Year Published 1985
Report Number EPA/440/4-85/023
Stock Number PB85-221679
OCLC Number 48623817
Subjects Cadmium--Environmental aspects--United States. ; Pollutants--Risk assessment--United States.
Additional Subjects Hazardous materials ; Environmental surveys ; Toxicology ; Public health ; Industrial hygiene ; Cadmium ; Sludge disposal ; Exposure ; Risk ; Assessments ; Sources ; Mathematical models ; Industrial wastes ; Ecology ; Air pollution ; Water pollution ; National government ; Humans ; Exhaust emissions ; Materials tests ; Plants(Botany) ; Animals ; Microorganisms ; Waste disposal ; Soils ; Health risks ; Toxic substances ; Environmental health ; Occupational safety and health ; Heavy metals ; Path of pollutants ; Land pollution
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB85-221679 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. NTIS 01/01/1988
Collation 77 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Abstract The incidence of cadmium induced harm to human health and aquatic life was evaluated and linked to pathways of exposure and means of disposal. The population's median exposure appears to be 12% of the kidney toxicity threshold. Statistical extrapolations suggest that 1-2 persons/million might exceed a toxic threshold among nonsmokers, and somewhat more among smokers. For the potential of lung cancer, the median ambient inhalation exposure could be projected to yield a lifetime upper-bound risk of .000004. Data indicate that tobacco smoking and food contribute most of the population's total cadmium burden, and that ambient air inhalation and drinking water contribute much less. The cadmium content of food and tobacco is believed to be related to the cadmium content of topsoil. Most of the cadmium handled by man is likely to be disposed of by landfill burial. Nevertheless, there are some pathways for the addition of cadmium to cropland topsoil. These include phosphate fertilizer, sewage sludge land-spreading, emissions deposition, and irrigation water. Modeling suggests a very gradual increase in population exposure due to these pathways. The extent of any cadmium induced impairment of aquatic life remains uncertain. Point source discharges of cadmium are estimated to be decreasing, however.
Notes "February 1985." "EPA-440/4-85-023." Includes bibliographical references (pages 57-63). Microfiche.
Place Published Washington, DC :
PUB Date Free Form 1985
NTIS Prices PC A05/MF A01
BIB Level m
Cataloging Source OCLC/T
OCLC Time Stamp 20011217115203
Language eng
Origin OCLC
OCLC Rec Leader 01053nam 2200265Ka 45020