||Natural History and Genetic Diversity -- Evolution and Natural History of the Cotton Genus -- The Worldwide Gene Pool of G. hirsutum and its Improvement -- The Worldwide Gene Pool of Gossypium barbadense L. and Its Improvement -- The Worldwide Gene Pools of Gossypium arboreum L. and G. herbaceum L., and Their Improvement -- Genomic Tools, Resources and Approaches -- Gossypium DNA Markers: Types, Numbers, and Uses -- Physical Composition and Organization of the Gossypium Genomes -- The Gossypium Transcriptome -- Genetic Engineering of Cotton -- Mutagenesis Systems for Genetic Analysis of Gossypium -- Gossypium Bioinformatics Resources -- Bridging Classical and Genomic Investigations of Cotton Biology -- Bridging Classical and Molecular Cytogenetics of Gossypium -- Bridging Classical and Molecular Genetics of Cotton Fiber Quality and Development -- Bridging Classical and Molecular Genetics of Cotton Disease Resistance -- Bridging Classical and Molecular Genetics of Abiotic Stress Resistance in Cotton -- Bridging Traditional and Molecular Genetics in Modifying Cottonseed Oil -- Early Messages -- Genomics of Cotton Fiber Secondary Wall Deposition and Cellulose Biogenesis -- Responses of the Cotton Genome to Polyploidy -- Comparative Genomics of Cotton and Arabidopsis -- Impacts on Agroecosystems of Transgenic Insect and Herbicide Resistance in Cotton -- Synthesis -- Toward Characterizing the Spectrum of Diversity in the Gossypium Genus. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Edited by Andrew H. Paterson The Gossypium (cotton) genus presents unique opportunities to advance our understanding of the natural world. In particular, the evolution of cultivated cottons from their wild ancestors has involved a fascinating series of events that offer scientists the opportunity to dissect the evolution of a novel organ, the 'lint fiber', and also to better understand the roles of polyploidy in generation of biodiversity and in crop productivity and quality. Current and future cotton genomics studies are guided by a long history of classical genetics research, as well as nearly two decades of molecular genetics. In this book, advances of the past decade will be summarized and synthesized to elucidate the current state of knowledge of the structure, function, and evolution of the Gossypium genome, and progress in the application of this knowledge to cotton improvement. As a backdrop, it is important to understand the naturally-occurring diversity in the genus, its organization and distribution, and its evolutionary history. Of special importance is the formation of a single polyploid from two (among 8) diploid genome types, the radiation of this polyploid, and the independent domestication and improvement of two (among nearly 50) diploid and two (among 5) polyploid species. Genomic tools for cotton biology and improvement have expanded dramatically in the past 5 years - a detailed summary of these tools and their early applications is central to this book. Application of genomic tools to priorities in cotton improvement, including the genetic control of variation in cotton fiber yield and quality components, disease and pest responses, and abiotic stress responses, are addressed. The anticipated sequencing of the genomes of several members of the genus and the new opportunities that this will create, are also addressed. Andrew H. Paterson, Ph.D. is a Distinguished Research Professor at the University of Georgia, jointly appointed in three Departments (Crop and Soil Science, Plant Biology, and Genetics) and the director of the Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory (www.plantgenome.uga.edu). He has authored or co-authored 204 refereed publications, 53 book chapters, 6 patent applications, edited 2 previous books, and given 150 invited presentations. He is a member of the AAAS, GSA, CSSA, and several other professional organizations. Professor Paterson has been the recipient of the Crop Science Society of America "Young Crop Scientist of the Year" award (1996), the inaugural Cotton, Inc. Cotton Biotechnology award (2002), D. W. Brooks Award for Excellence in Research (2005), National Cotton Council Cotton Genetics Research Award (2008), and a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship in Plant Sciences (2007-8). In addition, he has served on eight editorial boards, currently being an associate editor of Genetics, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, and Tropical Plant Biology, and is frequently an ad hoc reviewer and/or panelist for additional journals and granting agencies. He serves in several national and international research initiatives, including the steering committee of the International Cotton Genome Initiative.