||Innate Immunity in Autoimmune Diseases -- Innate Immunity in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis -- Toll-like Receptor 9 and Autoimmunity -- C-Reactive Protein as a Regulator of Autoimmune Disease -- NKT Cells and Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes -- Genetics of Autoimmune Diseases -- The Genetics of Human Autoimmune Diseases -- Failure to Maintain T Cell DNA Methylation and Chromatin Structure Contributes to Human Lupus -- Complement Components C4A and C4B in Human Lupus -- Non-MHC Genetic Polymorphisms with Functional Importance for Human Myasthenia Gravis -- Triggers of the Autoimmune Attack -- Rheumatic Heart Disease: Molecular Basis of Autoimmune Reactions Leading to Valvular Lesions -- Autoimmunity against Desmogleins in Pemphigus Vulgaris -- The Molecular Basis of Celiac Disease -- Intrathymic Expression of Neuromuscular Acetylcholine Receptors and the Immunopathogenesis of Myasthenia Gravis -- Targets of the Autoimmune Attack -- Autoantibodies and Nephritis: Different Roads May Lead to Rome -- Estrogen, Interferon-gamma, and Lupus -- Extent of Regulatory T Cell Influence on Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene Control of Susceptibility in Murine Autoimmune Thyroiditis -- The Role of Autoimmunity in Multiple Sclerosis -- Immune Receptor Signaling Pathways -- Crippled B Lymphocyte Signaling Checkpoints in Systemic Autoimmunity -- Disrupted T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathways in Systemic Autoimmunity -- Immune Cell Signaling and Gene Transcription in Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -- Accumulation of Self-Antigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -- Immunointervention Strategies -- B Lymphocyte Depletion Therapy in Autoimmune Disorders: Chasing Trojan Horses -- B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) and Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases -- Control and Induction of Autoimmunity by Cytokine and Anti-cytokine Treatments -- Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Severe Autoimmune Diseases -- Molecular Mimicry in Autoimmune Uveitis: From Pathogenesis to Therapy -- Molecular Pathogenesis of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Toward Novel Therapeutic Targets -- A Novel Approach to the Prevention of Atherosclerosis -- Antigen-Specific Regulation of Autoimmunity. 2004 marks the 100th anniversary of the first description of the autoimmune disease paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, a rare hemolytic disorder, by Julius Donath and Karl Landsteiner. After a century of research, the list of autoimmune diseases has become impressive. With a prevalence of approximately 5% of the world-wide population, these chronic, debilitating conditions affect almost every major organ of the body and, for reasons that remain unclear, are much more prevalent in woman than in men. Despite our rapidly expanding knowledge of the cellular and molecular pathways that govern a normal immune response, deciphering the precise etiology of autoimmune diseases remains an important challenge. Over the last few years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has improved rapidly, leading to the emergence of elegant immunointervention strategies. Molecular Autoimmunity illustrates how cutting-edge research is continuing to advance our understanding of autoimmune disease mechanisms and identifies novel therapeutic targets that provide a hope for effective future treatments. This volume contains a selected number of exciting advances in unraveling autoimmune reactions, and the resulting new armory of experimental immunotherapies that may lead to new ways of controlling autoimmune reactions.