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OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Evaluation of emissions and control techniques for reducing fluoride emissions from gypsum ponds in the phosphoric acid industry /
Author Linero, A. A. ; Baker., R. A.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Baker, R. A.
CORP Author Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gainesville, Fla.;Industrial Environmental Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, N.C.
Publisher Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development ; For sale by the National Technical Information Service,
Year Published 1978
Report Number EPA-600/2-78-124; EPA-68-02-1330
Stock Number PB-283 697
OCLC Number 04647680
ISBN pbk.
Subjects Pollution--United States. ; Gypsum. ; Phosphoric acid.
Additional Subjects Phosphoric acids ; Manufacturing ; Air pollution ; Fluorides ; Management planning ; Ponds ; Phosphate deposits ; Sulfuric acid ; Calcium sulfates ; Solid waste disposal ; Cooling ; Calcium oxides ; Process charting ; Economic analyses ; Land use ; Process charting ; Mathematical analysis ; Chemical reactions ; Fluorine ; Phosphate industry ; Air pollution control ; Land disposal ; Hydrogen/hexafluorosilicate ; Silicate/hexafluoro
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EHAM  EPA-600/2-78-124 Region 1 Library/Boston,MA 05/25/2016
EJBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-2-76-124 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 03/04/2014
EJBD  EPA 600-2-78-124 c.1 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 03/26/2014
ESAD  EPA 600-2-78-124 Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA 03/23/2010
NTIS  PB-283 697 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. 06/23/1988
Collation ix, 219 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
Abstract The report gives results of a study of gaseous emissions from gypsum disposal and cooling water ponds to determine their potential as sources of airborne fluorides from the manufacture of phosphoric acid. A model of the chemistry within the pond environment was developed. Previous emission rate studies were evaluated with respect to assumptions, methodologies, and conclusions: none provided a sufficient basis for determining a fluoride emission factor. The ponds, found in major phosphate production areas (e.g., Florida, North Carolina, and the Western U.S.), usually cover several hundred acres. Process water enters a pond at over 100 F, and leaves at lower temperatures after evaporative cooling. Ambient concentrations near a typical pond were calculated by predictive modeling methods, assuming emission rates of 0.1, 1, and 10 lb per acre per day. At the higher rates, control of fluoride emissions appears necessary. An analysis of possible control methods indicated that liming is too expensive an alternative. The most promising method appears to be the Swift process for fluorosilicic acid recovery, coupled with segregation of the cooling and gypsum pond waters. The hemi/dihydrate process also appears to be promising.
Notes Contract no. 68-02-1330, task no. 3, program element no. 1AB604. Issued June 1978. Includes bibliographical references (pages 216-218).
Place Published Washington Springfield, Va.
Corporate Au Added Ent United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development.; Environental Science and Engineering, inc., Gainesville, Fla.
Corp Au Ser Add Ent United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental protection technology series ; EPA-600/2-78-124.
NTIS Title Notes Task rept. Dec 73-Jan 75.
PUB Date Free Form 1978
Series Title Untraced Environmental protection technology series ; EPA-600/2-78-124
Category Codes 7A; 8I; 48A; 68A; 99B
NTIS Prices PC A11/MF A01
Primary Description 600/13
BIB Level m
Medium unmediated
Content text
Carrier volume
Cataloging Source OCLC/T
Control Number 323744985
OCLC Time Stamp 20160419143127
Language eng
SUDOCS Number EP 1.23/2:600/2-78-124
Origin OCLC
OCLC Rec Leader 02125cam 2200469Ii 45020