||Background. Scope and history of ecology ; General nature of environmental responses ; The biotic community, its structure and dynamics ; Measurement of populations -- Local habitats, communities, succession. Streams ; Lakes ; Ponds, marshes, swamps, and bogs ; Rock, sand, and clay ; Grassland, forests, and forest-edges -- Ecological processes and community dynamics. Dispersal, migration, and ecesis ; Reactions, soil formation, and chemical cycles ; Cooperation and disoperation ; Food and feeding relationships ; Energy exchanges, productivity, and yield ; Reproductivity and population structure ; Regulation of population size ; Irruptions, catastrophes, and cycles ; Niche segregation ; Speciation -- Geographic distribution of communities. Distributional units ; Paleoecology ; Temperate deciduous forest biome ; Coniferous forest, woodland, and chaparral biomes ; Tundra biome ; Grassland biome ; Desert biome ; Tropical biomes ; Marine biomes.