||Risk from Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emitted from Municipal Incinerators.
Maukerjee, D. ;
Cleverly., D. H. ;
||Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office.
Public health ;
Waste disposal ;
Laboratory animals ;
Risk assessment ;
Air pollution effects(Humans) ;
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins ;
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans ;
Municipal wastes ;
Biological effect ;
Air pollution effects(Animals)
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
||Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). Their prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic chemicals known and has been found to have teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in animals. Exposure to TCDD can result in chloracne, general weakness, drastic weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin, hirsutism, porphyria cutanea tarda, liver damage, changes in activities of various liver enzymatic levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, abnormalities of the endocrine and immune systems, and possible teratogenic effects in humans. Moreover, chronic bioassay data indicate that TCDD is one of the most potent carcinogens known. It promotes liver and skin carcinogeneses, and is an initiator for various target organs in rodent test systems. According to the classification system of IARC, the qualitative evidence for carcinogenicity of TCDD is considered to be 'sufficient' in animals and 'inadequate' in humans. Consequently, TCDD has been placed in IARC's 2B category. In the absence of chronic bioassay data on other PCDDs and PCDFs, several TCDD equivalent approaches have been proposed for risk assessment on other congeners or mixtures. The paper compares the various approaches.
||Pub. in Waste Management and Research 5, p269-283 1987. Presented at the ISWA-WHO-DAKOFA specialized seminar, 'Emission of Trace Organics from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators, Copenhagen (Denmark), January 20-22, 1987.
|NTIS Title Notes
||Reprint: Risk from Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emitted from Municipal Incinerators.
||68G; 68A; 68C; 57U; 57Y; 44G
||PC A03/MF A01