Soil organic phosphorus speciation by spectroscopic techniques -- Characterization of phosphorus forms in soil microorganisms -- The use of tracers to investigate phosphate cycling in soil/plant systems -- Molecular approaches to study biological phosphorus cycling -- Modelling phosphorus dynamics in the soil-plant system -- Role of mycorrhizal symbioses in phosphorus cycling -- Solubilization of phosphorus by soil microorganisms -- Role of soil macrofauna in phosphorus cycling -- Role of phosphatase enzymes in soil -- Rhizosphere processes, plant response and adaptations -- Biological phosphorus cycling in grasslands - Interactions with N -- Biological phosphorus cycling in arctic and alpine soils -- Phosphorus nutrition of forest plantations: the role of inorganic and organic phosphorus. - Phosphorus cycling in tropical forests growing on highly weathered soils -- Biological P cycling in dryland regions -- Manure management effects on phosphorus biotransformations and losses in animal production -- Management impacts on biological phosphorus cycling in cropped soils -- Phosphorus and global change. Phosphorus (P) is a finite resource which is essential for life. It is a limiting nutrient in many ecosystems but also a pollutant which can affect biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems and change the ecology of water bodies. This book collects the existing, up-to-date information on biological processes in soil P cycling, which to date have remained much less understood than physico-chemical processes. The methods section presents spectroscopic techniques, characterization of microbial P forms, as well as the use of tracers, molecular approaches and modeling of soil-plant systems. The section on processes deals with mycorrhizal symbioses, microbial P solubilization, soil macrofauna, phosphatase enzymes and rhizosphere processes. On the system level, P cycling is examined for grasslands, arctic and alpine soils, forest plantations, tropical forests, and dryland regions, while aspects of P management with respect to animal production and cropping are also presented. The final chapter examines the interactions between global change and P cycling.