Intra-specific Variation: Overview of Field Research and Related Studies -- Research History of Japanese Macaques in Japan -- Morphological Characteristics, Growth, and Aging in Japanese Macaques -- Modes of Differentiation in Japanese Macaques: Perspectives from Population Genetics -- Intra-specific Variation: Ecology and Conservation -- Ecological Adaptations of Temperate Primates: Population Density of Japanese Macaques -- Regional, Temporal, and Interindividual Variation in the Feeding Ecology of Japanese Macaques -- Seed Dispersal by Japanese Macaques -- Conservation: Present Status of the Japanese Macaque Population and Its Habitat -- Intra-specific Variation: Behaviors and Social Relationships -- The Ecological Design of the Affiliative Vocal Communication Style in Wild Japanese Macaques: Behavioral Adjustments to Social Contexts and Environments -- Cultured Japanese Macaques: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Stone Handling Behavior and Its Implications for the Evolution of Behavioral Tradition in Nonhuman Primates -- Interaction Between Male and Female Mating Strategies and Factors Affecting Reproductive Outcome -- Lifetime Social Development in Female Japanese Macaques -- Intraspecific Differences in Social Structure of the Japanese Macaques: A Revival of Lost Legacy by Updated Knowledge and Perspective -- Recent Topics from Unique Approaches -- Topic 1: Behavior-Related Candidate Genes in Japanese Macaques -- Topic 2: Fatty Acid Content of the Plants Consumed by Japanese Macaques -- Topic 3: Toward Understanding the Role of Diet in Host-Parasite Interactions: The Case for Japanese Macaques -- Topic 4: Did a Habitat Bottleneck Exist in the Recent History of Japanese Macaques? -- Topic 5: Resolution of Human-Macaque Conflicts: Changing from Top-Down to Community-Based Damage Management -- Topic 6: Social Object Play Among Juvenile Japanese Macaques -- Topic 7: Japanese Macaque Society as a Complex Adaptive System -- Color Plates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) have been studied by primatologists since 1948, and considerable knowledge of the primate has been accumulated to elucidate the adaptation of the species over time and to distinct environments in Japan. The Japanese macaque is especially suited to intragenera and interpopulation comparative studies of behavior, physiology, and morphology, and to socioecology studies in general. This book, the most comprehensive ever published in English on Japanese macaques, is replete with contributions by leading researchers in field primatology. Highlighted are topics of intraspecific variations in the ecology and behaviors of the macaque. Such variations provide evidence of the ecological determinants on this species' mating and social behaviors, along with evidence of cultural behavior. The book also addresses morphology, population genetics, recent habitat change, and conflicts with humans, and attests to the plasticity and complex adaptive system of macaque societies. The valuable information in this volume is recommended reading for researchers in primatology, anthropology, zoology, animal behavior, and conservation biology.