Avian behavioral responses to exposure to agricultural pesticides are reviewed in relation to ultimate effects on survival and reproduction. Pesticide-induced changes in foraging behaviors may lead to the formation of conditioned aversions that affect subsequent dietary exposure and, consequently, survival. Although laboratory birds can readily detect the presence of pesticides in food and prefer untreated alternatives if present, there are several other factors in the field that affect the ability of birds to modify their exposure to pesticides. Pesticides also can affect reproductive behaviors of birds at several periods, including pairing and nest building, egg laying, incubation, and rearing of young. Behavioral effects at these periods have been observed to reduce reproductive success. Research is needed to identify how pesticide effects on avian population parameters are influenced by their behavioral responses.