Taxonomy and Biogeography -- The Regression of Sturgeons in Southern Europe -- Analysis of Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers in Old Museum Sturgeons Yield Insights About the Species Existing in Western Europe: A. sturio, A. naccarii and A. oxyrinchus -- Morphological and Morphometric Characters in Sturgeon Taxonomy and Phylogeny -- Molecular Markers and the Study of Phylogeny and Genetic Diversity in North American Sturgeons and Paddlefish -- Forensic Strategies Used for DNA Extraction of Ancient and Degraded Museum Sturgeon Specimens -- Mechanisms of Polyploid Evolution in Fish: Polyploidy in Sturgeons -- Biology and Aquaculture -- Histological, Histochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in the Digestive Tract of Sturgeon Acipenser naccarii During Early Ontogeny -- The Developmental Anatomy of the Heart of the Sturgeon Acipenser naccarii -- Observations on the Brain Development of the Sturgeon Acipenser naccarii -- Hormonal Induction of Ovulation In Vitro in Sturgeon Fishes -- Dispermic Androgenesis as a Method for Recovery of Endangered Sturgeon Species -- Influence of Temperature on the Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) Ovarian Follicles State -- On Nutrition and Feeding Studies as the Basis for the Culture of Different Sturgeon Species -- Recovery and Conservation -- Restoration of Adriatic Sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) in Italy: Situation and Perspectives -- Acipenser sturio Recovery Research Actions in France -- Conservation of the Sturgeon Fish in Lower Volga -- Experience of Conservation of Acipenser naccarii in the Ticino River Park (Northern Italy) -- Identification of Sturgeon Caviar Using DNA Markers -- International Trade in Caviar and Business Perspectives in Russia -- The Ecological Problems of Introduction and Reintroduction of Sturgeons -- Hydrological and Production Characteristics of the Main Basins for Reproduction and Fattening of Sturgeons -- Towards the Definition of Optimal Size-Weight Standards of Hatchery-Reared Sturgeon Fry for Restoration -- Acceptability and Prerequisites for the Successful Introduction of Sturgeon Species -- Prerequisites for the Restoration of the European Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser sturio and the Baltic Sturgeon (A. oxyrinchus X A. sturio) in Germany -- Sturgeon Recovery Plan in the Rhône River (France): Preliminary Results on Species Determination and Habitat Suitability -- Main Steps and Proposals for a Recovery Plan of Sturgeon in the Guadalquivir River (Spain). Sturgeons are considered "living fossils", sharing many morphological and biological features with ancestral fish. Furthermore, sturgeons are of the utmost interest from an economic perspective, not only for the caviar but for flesh, too. However, the wild populations of the majority of the species are at serious risk of extinction all over the world. So, it is urgent to develop strategies for both farming culture and conservation and recovery in natural habitats. This book provides a comprehensive view of the biology and sustainable development of these fish putting emphasis on the Southern Europe autochthonous species such as Acipenser nacarii and Acipenser sturio that share geographical distribution. Other relevant species (such as Huso huso, A. oxyrhinchus, A. ruthenus, A. stellatus) and areas (Germany, Russia, North America) are also considered. The contents are organised in three sections: Taxonomy and Biogeography (including the morphological and genetic analyses that clarify the taxonomy and phylogeny of sturgeons, focused on those from Southern Europe), Biology and Aquaculture (where several aspects of the developmental biology, feeding, and reproduction are considered in relation to the improvement of sturgeon farming), and Recovery and Conservation (that collates and analyses different recovery research actions, the ecology of the rivers for restoration as well as the problems related to the trade of caviar).