||Demonstrated technology and research needs for reuse of municipal wastewater /
Schmidt, Curtis J. ;
Clements, III., Ernest V.
||SCS Engineers, Long Beach, Calif.;National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. Advanced Waste Treatment Research Lab.
|| National Environmental Research Center, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
||EPA/670/2-75/038; EPA-68-03-0148; EPA-ROAP-ASB-011
Water reuse--United States. ;
Municipal water supply--United States. ;
Waste water reuse ;
Water conservation ;
Sewage treatment ;
Water quality ;
Industrial waste treatment ;
Water storage ;
Water supply ;
Water reclamation ;
Technology assessment ;
Domestic water ;
Water utilization ;
Water management(Applied) ;
Research needs ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
||xvi, 321 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm.
The survey identified 358 sites at which direct reuse of municipal wastewater was being practiced. Detailed data were gathered on volume, effluent quality, treatment, reliability and economics. It was found that direct reuse of municipal wastewater was not widespread accounting for less than 2% of this nation's water use in 1972. Irrigation and industrial cooling account for virtually all of this reuse. Only three sites practice reuse for recreational lakes, and one for nonpotable domestic use. Potable reuse is not presently practiced. General quality standards could not be derived for any category. In fact, water which is substandard according to published criteria is being successfully used in many reuse situations by fitting the water quality to the specific local condition. Overall economic analysis was also difficult. Storage and distance between supplier and consumer were more important considerations than quality and treatment. In general, the supplier undercharged the consumer because reuse was viewed as an inexpensive disposal technique. There is significant potential for an increase in reuse of wastewater in all categories; increased publicity concerning successful reuse is required to initiate this increase.
"Contract No. 68-03-0148; Program Element No. 1BB043." Includes bibliographical references (pages 141-167). Microfiche.