||Leaching of metals from household plumbing materials : impact of home water softeners /
Sorg, Thomas J. ;
Schock, M. R. ;
Lytle, D. A.
||National Risk Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH. Water Supply and Water Resources Div.
|| National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Metal pipes ;
Water pipes ;
Water softeners ;
Drinking water ;
Potable water ;
Water quality ;
Piping systems ;
Ion exchanging ;
Ion exchange ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
||196 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
A pilot plant study was conducted to evaluate the effects of household ion exchange softening on the leaching of metals from home plumbing materials. Phase I was conducted using a finished tap water having a hardness of 10 mg/L (as CaCO3) and a pH of 9.1 and Phase II was conducted using a ground water having a hardness of 300 mg/L (as CaCO3) and pH around 7.3. The pilot plant systems consisted of two pipe loop systems, each system having duplicate loops of lead pipe, copper-solder pipe, copper tubing, and brass faucets. One pipe loop system was used as a control system and was fed the source water and the second system was the test system and fed the same water softened with a houshold ion exchange water softener. Pilot plant operation consisted of an intermittent water flowing period followed by a standing period each day. After a standing period, water samples were collected from each loop and faucet to determine the amount of metal leaching from the loops and faucets. Considering the metal leaching data as a whole, the ion exchanged softened water did not show a pattern of higher metal leaching from the pluming materials, nor did the water softener have a detrimental effect on the significant water quality parameters that influence metallic solubility.
"April 1998." Includes bibliographical references (pages 61-62). "EPA/600/R-98/044." Microfiche.