In 1987, Congress shifted from fifteen years of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution planning and problem identification (1972-1987) to a new National NPS action program. The Act placed special emphasis on NPS by moving the provision from Title II (Grants for Construction of Treatment Works) into Title III (Standards and Enforcement), and by strengthening the basic Declaration of Goals and Policy in 101(a) of the Clean Water Act. The law and its legislative history expressed the intent that Federal and State governments should develop new institutional arrangements and come up with a better division of roles and responsibilities to get the job done. Consistent with 319, States are completing their assessments and management programs, which, after EPA review and approval, will serve as the cornerstone of the National NPS program in the years to come. This National NPS Agenda forms the framework for the National NPS program over the next five years, and will be supplemented by annual EPA work programs that provide additional, detailed information.