The amount of nutrients entering our waters has dramatically escalated over the past 50 years, and nutrients now pose significant water quality and public health concerns across the United States. In terms of growing drinking water impacts, expanding impairment of inland waters, and compromised coastal estuaries, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution has the potential to become one of the costliest, most difficult environmental problems we face in the 21st century (Boesch 1999). Current efforts to control nutrients have been hard-fought but collectively inadequate at both a statewide and national scale. Perhaps even more disturbing than our current inadequate nutrient control strategies is the certain knowledge that as our population increases from about 300 million people in 2008 by more than 135 million over the next 40 years (U.S. Census Bureau 2008; U.S. Census Bureau 2009), the rate and impact of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution will accelerate potentially diminishing even further our progress to date. As the U.S. population expands, nutrient pollution from urban stormwater runoff, municipal wastewater discharges, air deposition, and agricultural livestock activities and row-crop runoff is expected to grow as well.