Clean Air Act (CAA) section 172(c)(1) provides that state implementation plans (SIPs) for nonattainment areas must include 'reasonably available control measures' (RACM), including 'reasonably available control technology' (RACT), for sources of emissions. Section 182(b)(2) provides that for certain nonattainment areas, States must revise their SIPs to include RACT for sources of VOC emissions covered by a control techniques guidelines (CTG) document issued after November 15, 1990 and prior to the area's date of attainment. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines RACT as 'the lowest emission limitation that a particular source is capable of meeting by the application of control technology that is reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility.' 44 FR 53761 (Sept. 17, 1979). In subsequent Federal Register notices, EPA has addressed how states can meet the RACT requirements of the Act. CAA section 183(e) directs EPA to list for regulation those categories of products that account for at least 80 percent of the VOC emissions, on a reactivity-adjusted basis, from consumer and commercial products in areas that violate the NAAQS for ozone (i.e., ozone nonattainment areas). EPA issued the list on March 23, 1995, and has revised the list periodically. See 60 FR 15264 (March 23, 1995); see also 71 FR 28320 (May 16, 2006), 70 FR 69759 (Nov. 17, 2005); 64 FR 13422 (Mar. 18, 1999). Offset lithographic printing and letterpress printing are included on the current section 183(e) list. This CTG addresses both the offset lithographic printing industry and the letterpress printing industry. Although offset lithographic printing and letterpress printing are two distinct product categories on the section 183(e) list, they have many similarities in the types of inks and cleaning materials used, the sources of VOC emissions, and the controls available to address those emissions. We therefore address both categories in this CTG. The CTG
is intended to provide state and local air pollution control authorities information that should assist them in determining RACT for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for offset lithographic printing and letterpress printing. In developing this CTG, EPA, among other things, evaluated the sources of VOC emissions from these printing industries and the available control approaches for addressing these emissions, including the costs of such approaches. Based on available information and data, EPA provides recommendations for RACT for offset lithographic printing and letterpress printing.