The 1989 and 1990 reports pointed to many gaps in and influenced the passage of laws and rules to improve the nations oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response strategy at the time of the Exxon Valdez accident. Recommendations in the reports were developed from lessons learned in response to the Exxon Valdez disaster, as well as from reviews of contingency plans and analyses of worst-case scenarios. The reports generally concluded that resources were stretched very thin at the time of the Exxon Valdez accident, and that none of the governmental or private parties involved in the spill were properly prepared to respond to a spill of such magnitude. Hence, the 1990 report identified several specific recommendations for correcting preparedness shortfalls and devoting more consistent attention to the issue of oil spills. The 1990 report recommended enhancing capabilities and resources to combat oil spills, particularly with regard to the National Response System (NRS), emergency response resources, and contingency planning. The recommendations identified specific reforms, such as: (1) enhancing planning efforts, especially for high-risk catastrophic spills; (2) increasing the availability and mobilization of response resources, including state-of-the-art equipment and trained personnel; (3) promoting more effective coordination of contingency planning among various levels of government and industry; (4) accelerating the use of and research into innovative cleanup techniques; (5) improving training and exercising for oil spill response; and (6) promoting stronger oil spill prevention efforts.