This document presents background information and justification for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of trichloroacetic acid (TCA). IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogenicity assessment. The RfD and RfC, if derived, provide quantitative information for use in risk assessments for health effects known or assumed to be produced through a nonlinear (presumed threshold) mode of action. The RfD (expressed in units of mg/kg-day) is defined as an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. The inhalation RfC (expressed in units of mg/m3) is analogous to the oral RfD, but provides a continuous inhalation exposure estimate. The inhalation RfC considers toxic effects for both the respiratory system (portal-of-entry) and for effects peripheral to the respiratory system (extrarespiratory or systemic effects). Reference values are generally derived for chronic exposures (up to a lifetime), but may also be derived for acute (.24 hours), short-term (>24 hours up to 30 days), and subchronic (>30 days up to 10 percent of lifetime) exposure durations, all of which are derived based on an assumption of continuous exposure throughout the duration specified. Unless specified otherwise, the RfD and RfC are derived for chronic exposure duration.