The report is a comprehensive review of hazardous waste generation and management practices within the petroleum refining industry. Nearly 625,000 metric tons (dry weight) of wastes were generated in 1974 by 247 refineries with a processing capacity of 14.2 million barrels per day. Waste streams emanating from individual refining process sources are characterized and described in detail. Following site visits and waste stream sampling at a representative group of sixteen refineries, a laboratory program of chemical analysis was carried out to identify potentially hazardous constituents of refinery wastes. Concentration levels of these constituents were measured, and hazardous wastes defined as those with any constituent with a concentration exceeding the average level in the natural soil environment. Oil is the principal hazardous substance in refinery wastes, representing approximately 110,000 metric tons per year. Metal constituents amount to 250 metric tons, fluoride to 812 metric tons, and phenol, cyanide, and benz-A-pyrene collectively to 6 metric tons. More than half of refinery wastes are removed by private contractors to ultimate disposal in offsite landfills or lagoons, however projections indicate a dramatic shift toward onsite disposal, particularly by landspreading and landfilling. Also anticipated is considerable waste reduction resulting from increased recycling, material reclamation, and product recovery. Some of the specific topics covered include: Characterization of the petroleum refining industry; The analytical program--(Criteria for identification of potentially hazardous wastes, Analytical methods and quality control procedures); Waste characterization; Treatment and disposal technologies; and Treatment and disposal costs.