Nine (9) state hazardous substance cleanup programs were studied in depth in 1989 to determine what elements of funding, enforcement, program organization and other factors are important to state capabilities. Those studied were Colorado, Illinois, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The states were selected to provide a cross-section of large and small programs, new and older programs, geographic diversity, and special program features. The findings of the study, prepared by the Environmental Law Institute for the Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation (OPPE), are reported in two parts. Part One synthesizes the results across states and draws conclusions concerning means of enhancing programs. Part Two reports on each of the states studied and shows how program features combine in the context of operating programs.