||Geological Survey, Denver, CO. ;Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife. ;Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Dept. of Geology and Geography.;Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
The chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis that are required for a successful biomonitoring program using chemical analysis are emphasized. The advantages and disadvantages of common analytical methods suitable for chemical analysis of lichens are briefly discussed. Aspects of a quality assurance program and final contract reports are highlighted. In addition, some examples of studies using chemical analysis of lichens are discussed.