Section I -- The Establishment of Composite Tissue Allotransplantion as a Clinical Reality -- The Evolution of Composite Tissue Allotransplantation: the Twentieth Century Realization of "Cosmas and Damian" -- The Impact of the Discovery of Cyclosporine on Transplantation of Composite Tissue Allografts -- The First Limb Transplants with Cyclosporine -- Section II -- Translational Research in Composite Tissue Allotransplantation -- Relative Antigenicity of Allograft Components and Differential Rejection -- On the Road to Tolerance Induction in Composite Tissue Allotransplantation -- Donor-Specific Tolerance -- Immune Tolerance Induction: Basic Concepts for Composite Tissue Allotransplantation -- Section III -- Allograft Survival with Calcineurin Inhibitors -- Long-Term Prevention of Rejection and Combination Drug Therapy -- Locoregional Immunosuppression in Composite Tissue Allografting -- New Approaches to Antibody Therapy -- Section IV -- World Experience of Hand Transplantation-Independent Assessment -- Hand Transplantation: Lyon Experience -- Hand Transplantation: The Louisville Experience -- Hand Transplantation: The Innsbruck Experience -- Section V -- Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation -- Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: Pathology of Composite Tissue Transplantation-Induced Graft-Versus-Host-Disease -- Immune Cell Redistribution After Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation -- Section VI -- Vascularized Knee Transplantation -- Tracheal Transplantation -- Laryngeal Transplantation -- Face Transplantation -- The Role of Allografts in Lower Extremity Reconstruction -- Skin Allografts in Scalp Reconstruction -- Abdominal Wall Transplantation -- Peripheral Nerve Allotransplantation -- Live-Donor Nerve Transplantation -- Section VII -- Ethical and Policy Concerns of Hand/Face Transplantation -- Ethical Debate on Human Face Transplantation -- Psychosocial Issues in Composite Tissue Allotransplantation -- Composite Tissue Transplantation in the Twenty-First Century. This book reviews, updates, and synthesizes the recent accomplishments and ongoing research in the field of composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA). The volume focuses on the immunology, biotechnology, and bioengineering of CTA, as these areas have demonstrated the most growth within the field in the last five years. The text presents the entire scope of CTA in a comprehensive format. This effort details the state-of-the-art advances in CTA and includes the numerous accomplishments of premier scientists and physicians from around the world engaged in the field. Significant advancements in the evolution of CTA are detailed from the historic legend of "Cosmas and Damian" through the most recent controversial topics of hand and face transplantation. Transplantation of Composite Tissue Allografts is an ideal and valuable resource for a diverse group of physicians, scientists, researchers, residents, and students. This book will both inform and excite all who are interested in helping patients benefit from transplantation of composite tissue allografts. About the Editors: Dr. Charles W. Hewitt is Professor of Surgery at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Director of the Division of Surgical Research, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/Cooper Health System in Camden, New Jersey. Dr. W.P. Andrew Lee is Professor of Surgery and Orthopedic Surgery and Chief of the Division of Plastic Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Dr. Chad R. Gordon is currently serving as Chief Resident in the Department of Surgery at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cooper University Hospital in Camden, New Jersey.