The neighboring cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul have long promoted energy efficiency for economic, environmental, and social reasons. In 1993, they began using their expertise to address the risk of global warming. Today their efforts are paying off with significant economic and environmental savings. Minneapolis and Saint Paul are partners in the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign, a program of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's State and Local Climate Change Program. In 1993, the Twin Cities pledged to reduce their combined carbon dioxide emissions to 20 percent below 1988 levels by the year 2005, a reduction of roughly six million metric tons. Minneapolis, as the larger city, is responsible for achieving 60 percent of the combined emissions reduction goal. Saint Paul is to provide 40 percent.