The purpose of the study was to determine whether the harmful industrial atmosphere has also an effect on the forest soil, and if that is indeed the case, to determine how this effect manifests itself in the biological structure of the soil. To study the effect of industrial exhalations on soil biology, one must carry out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the biotic soil component in undamaged and damaged growths. A prerequisite for this analysis are identical natural conditions in both groups of growths. For this reason, maturing and mature spruce growths of the same type were selected in a region so far undamaged by industrial gas and smoke (the area in the vicinity of the St. Sebastian Mountain), and medium or heavily damaged growths (in the Vilejsov and the Komari Vizka region). Detailed measurements of the soil microbiology, the symbiotic relationships, and the biological activity were made and compared for each area.