Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog
RECORD NUMBER: 247 OF 2132
|OLS Field Name||OLS Field Data|
|Main Title||Biological nutrient removal processes and costs.|
|CORP Author||Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water.|
|Publisher||U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,|
|Subjects||Sewage--Purification--Nutrient removal. ; Sewage--Purification--Nitrogen removal. ; Sewage--Purification--Phosphate removal. ; Water--Purification.|
|Additional Subjects||Nutrients ; Eutrophication ; Nitrogen ; Removal ; Phosphorous ; Algal blooms ; Anoxia ; Dissolved oxygen ; Fish kills ; Biological nutrient removal|
|Collation||12 pages ; 28 cm|
Nitrogen and phosphorus are the primary causes of cultural eutrophication (i.e., nutrient enrichment due to human activities) in surface waters. The most recognizable manifestations of this eutrophication are algal blooms that occur during the summer. Chronic symptoms of over-enrichment include low dissolved oxygen, fish kills, murky water, and depletion of desirable flora and fauna. In addition, the increase in algae and turbidity increases the need to chlorinate drinking water, which, in turn, leads to higher levels of disinfection by-products that have been shown to increase the risk of cancer. Excessive amounts of nutrients can also stimulate the activity of microbes, such as Pfisteria, which may be harmful to human health (U.S. EPA, 2001). Approximately 25% of all water body impairments are due to nutrient-related causes (e.g., nutrients, oxygen depletion, algal growth, ammonia, harmful algal blooms, biological integrity, and turbidity) (U.S. EPA, 2007). In efforts to reduce the number of nutrient impairments, many point so urce dischargers have received more stringent effluent limits for nitrogen and phosphorus. To achieve these new, lower effluent limits, facilities have begun to look beyond traditional treatment.
"June 2007." "EPA-823-R-07-002." Includes bibliographical references (page 12).
This document was prepared to provide information on the types of biological nutrient removal technologies, nutrient removal efficiencies, and the associated costs for small and large municipal systems.