This publication is a compilation of papers presented at the USEPA National Conference of 'Less Costly Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Communities,' held at Reston, Virginia, on April 12, 13, and 14, 1977. The focus of the conference was on sound and economical alternatives to conventional centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems for small communities. Discussion included present governmental policy on wastewater facilities, and descriptions of major types of conveyance and treatment systems (with comparative costs). Examples were provided of successful and cost-effective installations which meet environmental requirements. Alternative organizations for maintaining and operating small facilities were also discussed.