Children are often more heavily exposed to environmental toxicants than adults. They consume more food and water and have higher inhalation rates per pound of body weight than adults. Young children play close to the ground and come into contact with contaminated soil outdoors and with contaminated dust on surfaces and carpets indoors. As another example, exposure to chemicals in breast milk affects infants and young children. Although NCEA has published the Exposure Factors Handbook in 1997 (EPA/600/P- 95/002Fa-c), that include exposure factors and related data on both adults and children, the EPA Program Offices identified the need to consolidate all children exposure data into one document. The goal of the Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook is to fulfill this need. The document provides a summary of the available and up-to-date statistical data on various factors assessing children exposures. These factors include drinking water consumption, soil ingestion, inhalation rates, dermal factors including skin area and soil adherence factors, consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish, meats, dairy products, homegrown foods, breast milk, activity patterns, body weight, consumer products and life expectancy.
"Prepared for: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development." "Interim report." "September 2002." Shipping list no.: 2003-0356-M. Includes bibliographical references. "EPA-600-P-00-002B." "EPA Contract No. 68-W-99-041." Microfiche.