Main Focus -- Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuroimaging -- Overview of MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Spatially Normalized FDG-PET for Diffuse Axonal Injury Patients with Cognitive Impairments -- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Cognitive Brain Research -- Spectral Analysis of fMRI Signal and Noise -- Magnetoencephalography: Basic Theory and Estimation Techniques of Working Brain Activity -- Related Topics -- Interactions Between Chewing and Brain Activity in Humans -- Involvement of Dysfunctional Mastication in Cognitive System Deficits in the Mouse -- Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory from Molluscan Systems -- Role of the Noradrenergic System in Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus -- Involvement of the Amygdala in Two Different Forms of the Inhibitory Avoidance Task -- Bruxism and Stress Relief -- Muscular Pain Mechanisms: Brief Review with Special Consideration of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness -- ASIC3 and Muscle Pain -- Tail Region of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex and Its Relation to Pain Function. An enormous number of neurons in the brain form neural circuits by creating s- aptic bonds with other neurons. Many of those circuits come together and function as a system. To clarify the function of the human brain, a study needs to be dev- oped as a whole, not merely at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. With the development of neural science, knowledge of the molecules and neurons that comprise the brain has increased exponentially in the last two decades. The mysteries of human brain function are being solved in sequence with the use of the latest medical technologies such as PET, fMRI, MEG, and TEM, and in this way, research in neural science is making rapid progress. Springer Japan has given me the opportunity to publish this book, Novel Trends in Brain Science, which introduces the most important and latest knowledge in neural science on brain function imaging, learning, memory, emotions, and pain. In particular, the relationship between well-developed oral cavities and highly advanced brain function is an extremely new and unique area of study and is expected to become an entirely new ? eld. As of 2006, two Japanese-Taiwanese joint conferences on neural science have been held, in Gifu Prefecture (Japan) last year and in Taipei this year. In this book I have collected original research introduced by neuroscientists representing both countries at those conferences, and I am con? dent that the work brought together here will promote further research on the human brain.