Low-level radioactive waste is the primary component of the toxic waste stream generated from biomedical research and patient care activities. Historically, this radioactive waste has been shipped to Richland, Washington for landfill disposal. Several years ago, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission 'deregulated' liquid scintillation vials containing tritium and carbon 14. More recently, the State of Washington closed their landfill to these deregulated wastes. These regulatory changes have prompted a critical review of radioactive waste management practices at Duke University Medical Center. The authors have determined that volume reduction in the form of crushing and compacting could save $200,000 in annual disposal costs. Since there were no appropriate facilities to house these operations, construction of a new Environmental Safety Building was commissioned. The building is scheduled for occupancy by April 1986, and will house specialized facilities for the management of chemical and radioactive wastes.