"This study reviews and evaluates various conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous materials. The object was to use the data on actual spilled material characteristics as the basis for selecting the most appropriate ultimate disposal methods for residues from spill cleanups. The conventional methods reviewed are: biotreatment, chemical treatment (neutralization, oxidation, and reduction), incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, and fixation. Novel processes considered are: wet air oxidation, improved thermal degradation, microwave and plasma destruction, selective biodegradation, high temperature physical and chemical fixation, and oxidation with aqueous bromine. The report discusses the problems and requirements of applying each of these techniques to large and small hazardous substance spills and releases, particularly in situations where the spilled or recovered waste material is mixed with debris and various other chemicals. An attempt was made to use chemical and physical properties to specify preferred disposal methods for a wide range of toxic and hazardous substances and wastes. The original matrix format proved to be too complex and required too many subclassifications to be useful. In its place, what was developed is a generalized matrix that used conventional classifications of the technology available in the mid-1970's. The matrix generated can assist on-site coordinators in making assessments of the preferred disposal routes for hazardous wastes and spill residuals. The more generalized matrix is subdivided according to the physical and chemical properties of the hazardous materials and the nature of the other wastes or debris present in the residue. A second version of the matrix was also developed on the assumption that secured landfills would become unacceptable in the future and that certain novel techniques now under development could play a significant role at that time. The need for new disposal technology is addressed."