Future trends in environmental monitoring and instrumentation will reflect the growing need to measure total exposure of critical receptors to specific pollutants. This paper describes the major monitoring objectives expected and the design criteria for developing and implementing monitoring systems to meet these objectives. It deals with requirements for air and water monitoring systems as well as those for integrated monitoring, biological monitoring, personnel exposure monitoring, and remote monitoring systems which will be needed in the immediate future. It describes the analytical laboratory support that will be required for measuring such pollutants as respiratory irritants, organic compounds, and inorganic compounds as well as for the routine elemental analysis now commonly provided. Finally, it discusses the need for a well-designed quality assurance program and the role of such a program in providing data that are legally and scientifically defensible.