Basic Mechanism of PTSD and Stress-Related Brain Dysfunctions -- Neuroanatomical and Molecular Changes in Stress Responses During Early Life: Implications for Stress Disorders -- Cortisol and PTSD: Animal Experiments and Clinical Perspectives -- Stress and Corticosteroid Receptors -- Stress Vulnerability Induced by Neonatal Isolation and the Disturbance Between the Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of CREB -- Neuroscience of Emotional Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -- Studies on Pathophysiology of PTSD Using the SPS Model -- Mechanisms of Lasting Change in Anxiety Induced by Severe Stress -- Altered Emotional Behaviors in Mammalian Bombesin Receptor Knockout Mice: Implication for the Molecular Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Psychiatric Disorders in Humans -- Role of Stress Hormones and the Amygdala in Creating Lasting Memories -- Drug Discovery for PTSD: Characterization of an Animal Model of PTSD and PET Imaging of Brain Glucocorticoid Receptor -- Tissue Metabolism of Glucocorticoids: New Controls of Cognitive Function and the Stress Response -- Maternal Deprivation in Neonatal Period and Biological Rhythms -- Clinical Implications for PTSD and Perspectives in Psychiatry -- Current Perspectives on Clinical Studies of PTSD in Japan -- Psychosocial and Genetic Susceptibility to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -- Intrusion in Women with Breast Cancer -- Earthquake-Related PTSD: A Follow-up Study in Prevalence, Comorbidity, Quality of Life, and Biological Correlates -- Psychological Consequences for Students Who Survived the Ehime Maru Accident: A 26-Month Follow-Up Study -- Structural and Functional Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -- Functional Neuroimaging Research in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -- Functional Abnormality of the Prefrontal Cortex in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Psychophysiology and Treatment Studies Assessed by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy -- Neural Correlates of Symptom Improvement in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Positron Emission Tomography Study -- Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Implications from Advances in Neuroscience -- Pharmacological Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -- Secondary Pharmacological Prevention of PTSD: Therapeutic Implications of a Translational Model. Recent catastrophic events, such as the attack on the New York World Trade Center and the devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean, have drawn increasing attention to post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. Once thought of only in psychological terms, PTSD has emerged as the model mental disorder for studying the effect of the environment on human biological systems, especially the brain. This book breaks new ground by offering neuroscientific insights into PTSD and their implications for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The recent explosion of biological investigation into this distressing and disabling condition has been led by this volume's authors, who range from skilled basic scientists to experienced diagnosticians and therapists. Their contributions epitomize state-of-the-art, translational research in clinical neuroscience, and will prove to be an invaluable source of reference for practitioners and researchers in this field.